ENTRE LA IMAGEN Y LA REVELACIÓN: Otras formas de ver lo no evidente.

“From here on: light – created, concealed, contained, in the covenant, entering the rose, emitting seed into Her.” The Zohar, 1:1a.

Las diez Sefirot, The Zohar, Edicion Pritzker. Stanford University Press, Stanford University, 2004. Vol. I.

Roberto Palomo-Silva

El misticismo judío tiene unos orígenes antiquísimos, emerge desde los textos mismos de la Torah y otras fuentes adicionales, su extensa tradición ocupa siglos enteros, dentro de la experiencia judía, de la presencia divina.   El célebre pasaje del Profeta Ezequiel, especialmente 10: 1 y siguientes,  cuyas visiones inspiraron una importantísima corriente mística, Merkabah, a partir de la interpretación, de un texto hermético y alegórico, cargado de claves, símbolos y secretos, en ese particular y enigmático lenguaje del Profeta, que aparece acá  tal vez no exclusivamente como el que habla por otro, sino como un visionario, en el sentido de aquel a quien se le permite ver lo que otros no pueden, el que puede ver, a través de la niebla, y, en ese particular ver y lo que llega a mirar, observar, es la manifestación de algo que pareciera un Trono, la palabra del hebreo bíblico es muy especial, עֲלֵיהֶם , la cual podría verterse como Trono aunque el mismo texto habla de una apariencia y similitud, con un Trono.  La otra cuestión fascinante es la referencia a una orden dirigida a un “hombre vestido de lino”, entendemos dicha referencia debería contener un mandato a un “sacerdote”, quien solamente  podía vestir o  portar prendas sin mezcla de tejidos, lana y lino, están terminantemente prohibidos, de allí pues, el Profeta está delante de un dialogo/orden dirigido a un “hombre vestido de lino”, asumimos tendría esa condición, un alto sacerdote, quien aparentemente posee la virtud de comunicarse con el Creador mismo y recibe a su vez, un mandato, de una naturaleza muy especial, se trata de infligir un castigo sumamente severo, un castigo que implica el uso del fuego divino, en este caso, brasas de fuego, una formula repetida no solamente en los libros proféticos, sino incluso aparece en la tradición neotestamentaria, vertida como αντρακας πυρος, ánthrakas purós, que en  el contexto por ejemplo, de Romanos 12:20, tiene el sentido de castigo terrible. Es fascinante ver cómo ambas tradiciones están originariamente vinculadas, no son extrañas y mantienen  una especie de continuidad esencial,  entre el judaísmo y el cristianismo.

En el citado texto también se habla de una especie de nube, acompañada o más bien, precedida, por una claridad luminosa, la fuerza de la luz misma, que emana de la fuente de todas las formas de luz. La nube, la voz y la luz recuerdan la experiencia de Moisés en Sinaí, quien entra en la nube  (anan,  עָנַן) ) y permanece adentro de ella, por cuarenta días, como nos relata el Libro de los Nombres o Éxodo como fue vertido al griego en la traducción de la Septuaginta.  La palabra nube tal vez es insuficiente, para darnos un sentido pleno, del vocablo original semita, tanto en el arameo o en hebreo antiguos, la palabra se repite muchísimas veces, a lo largo de los textos centrales de la Torah;  posteriormente, en el Medioevo, otras tradiciones místicas, narrarán ese encuentro, con términos diferentes, aunque en ambas, se lee la experiencia de la divinidad, en el mundo, incluso un dialogo directo, entre personas y su Creador, la llamada experiencia terrenal del alma humana, en su encuentro con la divinidad, no es extraño a esto, el mismo San Juan de la Cruz, quien habla de esa fuente de luz, como la fuente de toda la luminosidad, “Su claridad nunca es escurecida./ y sé que toda  luz della es venida / aunque es de noche.”, tal y como lo cantan las “Canciones del alma que conoce a Dios”.  

De la nube podemos también transitar por las sombras.  Las sombras ocupan un lugar muy especial, en las experiencias místicas o encuentro con las fuentes de luz o incluso de obscuridad.  Las Rabinos del Talmud nos relatan en diversas ocasiones, encuentros con demonios, seres muy peculiares, capaces de provocar graves daños, a lo largo del Talmud se puede encontrar toda una muy extensa caracterización, de las peculiares y muy particulares capacidades, de estos seres, que, de alguna forma, deambulan y coexisten, con los seres humanos.  Una  de  las maneras de reconocerlos, es la ausencia de proyección de una doble sombra, la sombra de la sombra, en el Tratado Yevamot, 122:10, se relata la experiencia de la sombra doble, del demonio denominado Yonatan, Rab Hanina narra una conversación, que sostuvo con Yonatan, los demonios pueden cobrar forma humana, en el citado texto Rab Hanina al relatar la conversación, refiere los términos, que el propio Yonatan le trasmitió, pueden proyectar sombra sin embargo, no tienen sombra de la sombra y, claramente el contexto es uno muy diferente, trata más bien, de los matrimonios, la realidad de la sombra de la sombra, nos habla de una fuerza, que habita en su propia sombra, en penumbra y obscuridad, en la ausencia de luminosidad.  Vale traer a cuenta la célebre expresión recogida, en Hamlet, Acto 2, escena 2, 280, donde Rosencraz le dice a Hamlet, en ese extraordinario dialogo, sobre sueños y ambiciones, allí el dictum, la substancia misma de la ambición, no es sino la sombra de un sueño y un sueño no es otra cosa,   que una sombra afirma Hamlet y Rosencraz le reitera, que la condición etérea y liviana de la ambición, la hace no ser otra cosa, que la sombra de una sombra y Hamlet sentencia al concluir el dialogo, recordando que los monarcas y los supuestos héroes, no son sino los mendigos de la sombra.  Entre mendigos, pseudo héroes y monarcas o nuestros malos y corruptos gobernantes, devotos de la ambición carente de límites y control,  persiguen sombras de sombras, lo cual los acerca al mal mismo, caminan en compañía de esos personajes, como Yonatan, que son definidos por su propia sombra, o sea, en realidad por su falta total de claridad y transparencia, habitan en las penumbras y la semiobscuridad, donde deambulan, en ese domino de las sombras. 

Cuando se toca el tema del misticismo judío se torna casi impensable no referirse al Zohar, sin embargo, no es nuestra intención principal, ni comentar o menos abordarlo, en nuestro contexto, referido fundamentalmente al encuentro entre la fotografía de Mario Permuth y el misticismo.  De la Merkabah al Zohar hay una muy fluida – aunque primordialmente oculta – continuidad.  Cuando Gershon Scholem publicara en los años 40 del Siglo recién pasado, su famosa obra sobre el misticismo y la polémica se desencadenara, alrededor del tipo de arameo, en el que el Zohar está escrito, Sefer ha-Zohar o más conocido, bajo la poderosa formula, Libro del Esplendor, los autores involucrados y la tradición invocada obliga a recordar ilustres nombres, Cordovero, Nachmánides, de León, Luria, entre otros más, y, resulta fundamental, recordar a Rashbi, discípulo del gran Rabino  Akiva, ya que a Rashbi, algunos le han atribuido la autoría del Zohar, desde los tiempos palestinos, durante el dominio del Imperio Romano; es curioso siempre recordar, que Palestina, en realidad era el lugar donde habitaban los judíos, nombre impuesto por los romanos mismos, el Emperador Adriano, lo empleó después de la rebelión de Bar Kohba,  para referirse al Reino de Judea y el resto de lo que fuera el Reino de Israel, es bien sabido el enorme sufrimiento y destrucción, que se derivara del fracaso, de la rebelión y sus gravísimas consecuencias. Scholem afirmaba, que en realidad el Zohar había sido escrito, por Moisés de León, en el siglo trece; empero, sin intentar soslayar la enorme autoridad de Sholem, ciertos estudios más recientes, apuntan a una conservación de una tradición secreta y oral, sostenida, durante siglos. Las incongruencias morfo-sintácticas identificadas, por  Scholem han sido recientemente revisadas, apuntando más hacia una forma reiterada y sostenida, de uso de ese tipo de arameo, identificado, en otros textos herméticos aún más antiguos y provenientes, incluso del periodo tannaítico y palestino.  No hay duda que el Zohar es la fuente principal, de literatura mística judía, sin descartar una importante cantidad, de otros textos, que están incluso íntimamente vinculados al tema, no sólo dentro de la tradición gnóstica, sino apócrifa también. 

Cuando alrededor del año 2003, Mario Permuth publicara su extraordinario libro, el Árbol del Saber, acuñando conceptualmente el término “revelación simétrica”, en el contexto de una serie de fotografías-imágenes, el arte de Mario Permuth va más allá de la presentación de imágenes, coleccionadas o seleccionadas, bajo un cierto orden y criterio, si bien es cierto define la “revelación simétrica” como una invitación a ver o tal vez mejor, en palabras de sus hijos, ambos extraordinarios artistas, Jaime e Igal.  Revelación Simétrica es una “fórmula visual”, en la que imágenes simétricas se “cuajan y unen”, revelando así una nueva, nos dice Igal Permuth, dándole una definición teórica a la propuesta concepción ; Jaime por su parte, nos habla de una búsqueda casi personal, en la que las imágenes “extraordinarias e insospechadas”, penetran en la oscura y tal vez secreta raíz de las cosas, generando desde ese trabajo casi artesanal, nuevas imágenes, que nos hablan desde un futuro al cual se logra llegar mediante la creación de nuevas simetrías, existentes en las cosas mismas, que se revelan en esas combinaciones simétricas, casi matemáticas, que permanecen sin ser vistas, en la naturaleza y todo lo que nos rodea.  Ver como descubrimiento, ver como penetración, en lo visiblemente invisible.  

Como es bien sabido, Mario Permuth al hablar de “revelación simétrica” hablaba de una emergencia visual, que llegaría a las manifestaciones ópticas, de un orden existente, nada evidente, el cual se abre ante la mirada, el ver del lógos, en el sentido originario griego, el ver de verdad, también del que habla el gran filosofo ítalo-guatemalteco, el Dr. Antonio Gallo, en su extensa obra filosófica, un auténtico legado histórico, para Guatemala también.  La también extensa obra de Mario Permuth, nos ha regalado, como continuidad y congruencia, una nueva serie de imágenes, reunidas, bajo el sugerente título, el Tercer Ojo, donde ya la mística se incluye en la simetría y en el orden de lo creado.  Descubrir la presencia del Creador en lo creado, en su obra, ha sido un desiderátum, de las reconocidas visiones, deparadas por la tradición Judeo-Cristiana.  Se trata de un camino muy complejo, con una historia muchas veces trágica y dramática, donde la ignorancia ha atropellado, sin limitaciones, la búsqueda de la sabiduría, el camino del lógos al saber.  Si tomamos o formamos, una selección de diez – el numero acá no es arbitrario – la más importante de las  sefirot es Malchut– imágenes del reciente inventario producido, por el trabajo de Mario Permuth, con el fin de practicar un ejercicio, si se quiere de meditación, tal, aunque no solamente, cabalista, que nos permitiera asociar o vincular, esas imágenes, con los nombres de las diez emanaciones, conocidas como Sefirot, por el Zohar. Hay una indulgencia, como condición de iluminación, que es necesario introducir, las imágenes que Mario Permuth crea contienen figuras humanas, analogías cabalísticas, según una de las más reconocidas tradiciones, en el cabalismo, y, dado que la representación, de la figura humana es problemática, en la concepción central del judaísmo;  sin embargo, lo que se busca acá, es la presencia de la iluminación.  La experiencia de lo divino en la tierra.  Es un sendero sumamente intrincado, en un intento de comparación, podemos asumir, que las imágenes creadas por Mario Permuth son una especia de anticipación o invitación a buscar y ver, no constituyen o aspiran a substituir o reemplazar los diagramas, que representan las sefirot, ni cada imagen corresponde strictu sensu a cada sefira, esa no es la intención.  Lo que, si es una relación muy directa, es la noción de luminosidad, las imágenes son necesariamente luz, las sefirot son vehículos de luz, transmiten iluminación, de un dominio divino a un mundo totalmente humano.  Las imágenes derivadas, en tanto metáforas si se quiere o meras insinuaciones, de la evolución de la revelación simétrica, en tanto una técnica y una manera, de acercarnos a lo fundamental o, dicho de otra forma, nos invitan a un encuentro con la luz misma, repetimos: la experiencia de lo divino en el mundo.

Años atrás Mario Permuth creo una muestra con imágenes, que parecían demonios escondidos, dentro de árboles o en la tierra misma, semi enterrados o disimulando su asechar constante y amenazantes, expectantes del comportamiento humano y de las muestras de debilidad y flaquezas. Difíciles de reconocer y menos aún de nombrar, hay una vieja idea que al nombrar o pronunciar el nombre del demonio desaparecería inmediatamente, alejándose a su propia obscuridad. Esos demonios me hacían pensar, en el descenso a Xibalbá y, en un determinado momento, pensamos, en recurrir a un esfuerzo de nombrarlos, la forma más poética existente, de los nombres de los habitantes de Xibalbá, la encontrábamos en la famosa traducción del francés, de Georges Raynaud, que Miguel Ángel Asturias y J.M. González de Mendoza, del 1927, hicieran del Libro del Consejo, como llamaron al texto del Popol Vuh; la cual contiene bajo enormes licencias poética, una lista de nombres francamente impresionante, así intentamos ponerle nombres a esas figuras demoniacas-emergentes, desde el fondo de la naturaleza misma. Ambiciosa tarea, la cual demandaría aún mayores licencias. Si nos arriesgáramos a seleccionar, diez imágenes, siguiendo la osadía de nombrar las imágenes-demonios, con los de Xibalbá; aplicando el mismo procedimiento a esta colección excepcional, contenidas bajo el sugerente titulo de El Tercer Ojo, intentando establecer una relación de cada imagen, probablemente como meras analogías, con una determinada sefira, las cuales bien podrían ser incorporadas a un nuevo diagrama de las Sefirot, tendríamos una aspiración terriblemente audaz; sin embargo, tal vez, posible, si pensamos, en que el asunto principal es el de las emanaciones de luminosidad, los niveles de acercamiento a la fuente de la luz, pasarían por el establecimiento, de la Tres Triadas, luego, y, con mucha prudencia, abrir la mirada – eso del Tercer Ojo viene muy a cuenta – y penetrar más allá de la niebla y ubicarse, en la presencia de la luminosidad misma. Ahora resultará más evidente, el paso de la revelación, de las formas simétricas a las manifestaciones de cada sefira correspondientes, con ciertas imágenes, estamos así, nuevamente, ante el enorme reto, de adscribir los nombres a las sugerentes imágenes creadas, por Mario Permuth, a través de una autentica experiencia mística, donde la palabra cede, ante el poder luminoso de la imagen y lo que representa; arribamos al misterio del trabajo notable, de Mario Permuth. En la gran tradición cabalística existe un viejo principio, el cual alude a ciertas personas o sus medios y facultades, para asistir a otros a ver la luz, sea vía la participación o difusión, de sabiduría misma o en este caso, al contribuir decididamente a que muchos puedan llegar a la presencia, de esa luminosidad, es el camino de la enseñanza, algo así como el permanente principio del compartir la sabiduría judía, sin restricciones o limitaciones y de esta manera, entre otras, recibir la luz, en este caso, estamos delante, de las simetrías y, en la cercanía de la iluminación, es la invitación, que su obra y creación, nos invitan a caminar. Acerquémonos, desde estos horizontes a las imagen de la futura muestra, para iniciar la ceremonia del ver más allá de las sombras y penetrar en la luminosidad.

On decontextualisation and the Guild of the Nay Sayers.

Roberto Palomo-Silva

Ferdinand Bol, Die Vorsteher der Amsterdamer Weinhändlergilde, 1659, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen – Alte Pinakothek München.

Guilds are linked to power. Probably the origin of trade as a means of organised exchanges to generate wealth and success lies on the establishment and growth of different guilds. In medieval times they flourished and produced significant amounts of wealth, this has been extensively studied and researched and volumes have been written, telling the stories of their origins and eventual downfalls. Treading States such as the Hanseatic League, just to mentioned one – and it is not the only case -, were very successful whilst organising this fascinating forms of self protection and promotion of economical interests either of merchants and even more, craftsmen as well as others alike and with wealth and riches came also, power. However, the road of the League and its demise is a very well know history, sadly as it might seem guilds survived and mutated into more powerful organization and its double fold identity, trade and politics namely, blossomed into newer versions, Chambers or even some social clubs either/or secret societies, take this with a glimpse, because it could be the other way around. Here the idea of the guilds serves as a metaphor, in the sense not of an allegory, but more like paradigms transforming into models or even, into organised entities, regulated via different alternatives or mechanisms such as bylaws or constitutions, suffice to say that the famous Book of the Eparch dates from the Byzantine times – published under the reign of Emperor Leo VI, around 886-911 CE – and stablished rules and regulation for guilders or traders, amongst others, notably perfumers, spicers, wax candlers amongst others, so therefore the task is as old as time or not metaphorically, the effort to clearly regulate and protect traders, guilders, continues since Constantinople to the current and powerful Chambers of Trade and Commerce in contemporary times. The idea of a Guild of Nay Sayers may be puzzling but serves its purpose as an introduction of the metaphor: there is not, obviously, such a Guild at least not organised and regulated but guides us to the thread of the utterance of the No. The phenomena of the No is barely beginning to be studied and its usage nowadays comes mainly from critical studies and cultural movements. From its humble beginnings the list of merchants and traders, guilders, contained in the Book is frankly very modest if we watch carefully the colossal transformation that has taken place, in our current world even International Organisations, the WTO, in this case, regulate and norm inter state trade, in reality all trade between nations and men. The millennia passed since Constantinople’s attempt to govern and protect trade. Gigantic states control all forms of trade and also immense corporation – some even larger than most world states – compete at all levels for profits and markets. The individual, the human persona, the small dreamer is caught between this incomprehensible reality that totally transcends peoples and human beings. Let us go back to the No.

First page of the Book of the Eprach, Τὸ ἐπαρχικὸν βιβλίον.

There is a well known recurrence, practiced since the interpretation of Sacred Texts started, decontextualisation, during the times of the Rabbis of the Talmud rules were stablished to settle disputes or arguments, sources were employed or invoked to create the correct reading of a text, sometimes contained on Baraithos or other sources, even interpreting or arguing around subjects on the Gemara or other texts, were regular subjects of analysis and various fascinating disputes, the Rabbis crafted hermeneutical rules applied to further readings and even more, formal applications, of a large array of matters that the Talmud addresses. The extraordinary length of the wisdom and knowledge in the Talmud is so carefully developed and such task cannot be fully completed without a method of thinking and analysis and there’s a highly sophisticated one built step by step by the Rabbis. Something similar can be said about other religions and their readings of Sacred Text and the theologies developed by all the Religions of the Book and others even older than judo-cristhianity; generated systems of wisdom and knowledge too, schools of interpretations, different visions and more methods were crafted let us think that the way from the early times of talmudic interpretation, Aristotelian-scholasticism, demythologising and even to the current political Christology, different readings of the Sacred Text were practiced by scholars, theologians and the authority of the Churches themselves, Dogma is being born and official interpretations as well as canonic texts to be consecrated as unquestionable. Kerigma and Mythos. Controversies can be found constantly and endlessly on almost all matters. The secret story of decontextualisation is slowly taking form. Countless of examples can be sited to prove this argument, recently we choose to quote, a very famous television series, on one of the mayor streaming services, a typical case takes place and we witnessed with total astonishment, when some self-called prophet invokes a Jeremiah versicle, complete and notoriously out of context, decontextualising the words and the verse, in favour of a personal reading and totally wrong interpretation, the quote comes from verse 6:1 from Yirmiyahu (Jeremaih) more exactly verses 4 and 5, when quoting only 5 and isolating it and reading as G’d anointing of any prophet or in this particular case, had spoken exclusively to him, it’s best if we allow the text to speak by itself: “5 When I had not yet formed you in the womb, I knew you, and when you had not yet emerged from the womb, I had appointed you; a prophet to the nations I made you.”, however if the verse is totally decontextualised it becomes a sorts of mandate to a certain person that is self-chosen – like in the present case – to become a prophet, whilst totally and completely ignoring the previous verse in which, in the whole context, can unequivocally be understood that G’d is actually addressing Yirmiyahu/Jeremiah, once again by allowing the text to speak by itself: “4 And the word of the Lord came to me, saying:” and continuous onto the above quoted verse 5, what we have here is one of so many examples of this decontextualisation quasi-analysis that uses texts to force a certain reading or interpretation that might support an individual position. Let us not forget that for centuries translation and sometimes very poor translations, have been extensively employed leading not only to false readings and miss-interpretations but as in the case mentioned, deliberate and false “preachings” of sacred texts and also generating theological interpretations, that in many cases conducted to enormous tragedies and even dramatic turn of events. Wars have been fought in the name of false teachings by pseudo prophets and deformed invocations of sacred texts.

The essence of decontextualisation is the No or the No is the essence of decontextualisation. Phenomenological language may or may not sound nowadays kind of outdated, specially in a world dominated by so-called “critical thinking” we prefer the old naming, “critical theory” (Kritische Theorie) or an even better concept-word, Kulturtheorie, much in the sense of an other seemingly outdated language namely that of the “sociology of knowledge” and Walter Benjamin’s notion of Theory of Culture. Excessive critique stablished a form of nay-saying, hypercriticism leads inevitably to the endlessness of permanent arguing and constant confrontation of ideas. Unsolved controversies maintain the dominance of the nay-saying. Although as quoted above, a phenomenology of the No or a phenomenological study of nay-saying probably will be criticised from the mere proposal with the most colourful arguments, specifically as a westernised conception and other not so agreeable and kind terminology. However the idea of opposition and nay-saying, takes many forms, there’s a well know syndrome extensively documented and studied by clinical psychiatry, oppositional defiant disorder or ODD, whilst this is a medical condition treated accordingly, carries the characteristics or symptoms of aggression either/or verbal or physical and constant lying, this behaviour can even continuous in adulthood and throughout. We see and experience all its forms in everyday life and in all levels of existence. Nonetheless the nay-saying as a phenomena is much more than behavioural is an existential limit situation that is manifested as an expression of a pathological malady in a culture impregnated with violence and negation. Nay-saying is in its core destruction. Denying the other of its essential value of affirmation in positivity. Permanent, constant opposition for the mere affirmation of negativity is cruel and a very radical form of the obstruction of truth. I don’t like what you affirm therefore you are not and with that comes the capacity to think, to asseverate, so thus the fully being of the other is completely nullified. Nay-saying in its systematic quasi irrational form of denying everything pertaining to the other is an individual and cultural radical and devastating sickness.

Furthermore, if we are to consider a phenomenology of the nay-saying we should first practice a sort of eidetic reduction in Husserl’s early sense, there is a noema of the No and a nous of the No. Both sides are essential to the understanding of the phenomena of the No because it presents itself with an image but also carries a meaning. The eidos of the No is much more than a mere appearance or a simply image, goes far beyond the mere shape, outline or aspect that shapes a construction, its transcendental eidetic condition leads to the intentionality of the meaning-intent, namely the nullification. The nüllus. The necessary reconstruction of its philological origins and the transformation of the vocable, stablished a fascinating history of its phenomenological constitution as an eidetic figure. Let us simply remember that nüllus brings about nüllificätio, annullätio and nüllificämen, the list grows even larger and longer if we go to all the variants, versions and forms it takes in many others so-called latin languages or Romance languages. The No as nüllus denies, nullifies, annuls or as mentioned above, destroys and generates aggression and violence. Is in its essence is a repudiation of the consensus-building or any sort of agreement or understanding. The paralysing effects of the Nüllus as No produces a renunciation of a common approach to reaching a resolution to a controversy. Entrenchment is the noematic characteristic of its eidetic image. Splitting apart and maintaining the distance built by the process of nullification takes the condition of renunciation. Total lack of a possibility of any sort of consensus-building feeds the entrenchment and separation as a direct result of the nullification. The complexity of the process is such that it requires a very thorough and careful, detailed phenomenological description to arrive and open the hermeneutical level of comprehension, the experience of the Nüllus as generalised it might be, carries a darker cover that impedes and hinders its grasping as a destructive and nihilistic condition.

There is however one aspect that cannot be stressed enough whilst addressing the problematic condition of the Nüllus, all the current and future phenomenological or existential analysis of the Nay phenomena, should be carefully separated from the “right to say no” associated with many important movements occurring in the socio-cultural framework of aggression and abuse, even more the sacredness of the “right to say no” is a completely and not related topic with what we are here attempting to bring forward, the deeper and highly complex nature of the destructive Nay-saying, an ontological and axiological construct rooted and grounded at the essence of the human existence. The task merely underlined, presented in our quest for a more profound comprehension of a phenomena seldom studied outside the psychiatric and psychological domains, here lies the reason why we initiated this argumentation with the metaphor of the Guild, evidently there’s not a Guild of Nay-Sayers, at least as an organised collective body of individuals, nonetheless the extension of the nay-saying is so vast that seems rather paradoxical the lack or absence of large literature on this important subject of study. as an existential analytical standpoint, most likely it will be very difficult not to include the nay-saying as a permanent and constant act, since the theory of the phycological acts in sine of the Fifth Logical Investigation, no longer is employed or referred to as a means to study of any kind of phenomenological acts of the consciousness, as Husserl did with the famous study on the mannequin. The challenge remains thus open, methodologically and theoretically, on how such a study or analysis can be or should be conducted. Considering its fundamental importance the phenomena of the nay-saying as a repeated pattern and the renunciation, resignation via nullification, generated by its seemingly constant reiteration, demands the raising of the proper questions. To conclude and not to close this brief sketch or initial drawing of a very important phenomena, that affects individuals and even groups or entire collective communities, needs to be considered with the utmost seriousness and strict approach, both theoretically and methodologically, the nullification of the nay-saying silently and constantly harms and inflicts pain and hurt on sufferers of all nature of this destructive and deep damaging mysterious phenomena. Decontextualisation and nay-saying have for centuries harmed the correct understanding and hampered the ability to unconcealed truth and wisdom. Leaving in half-truths and blatant lies about fundamental realities or being forced to accept masquerades or worst, historically proven lies as cornerstones of everyday lives, carries a heavy burden of twisting lives and consciousness of a vast array of human persons that at all times have also a sacred right to the truth and the accurate states of affairs and factual realities. Nüll as nay-saying trough decontextualisation is a deliberate deformation and concealment of the truth.

Las Neo-teocracias y la Política Exterior.

Roberto Palomo-Silva

SACRE DE L’EMPEREUR NAPOLÉON ET COURONNEMENT DE L’IMPÉRATRICE JOSÉPHINE, Jacques-Louis David. Coronation of Emperor Napoleon I and Coronation of Empress Josephine in Notre Dame Cathedral of Paris, December 2, 1804, by Jacques-Louis David and Georges Rouget, 1805-1807. Louvre, Paris.

En la famosa obra de David/Rouget, de la coronación o auto-coronación, tal vez mejor dicho, de Napoleón en la histórica Catedral de Notre de Dame, en París, bajo la presencia y observación ceremonial y ritual, de todos aquellos, que de una u otra forma fueron figuras relevantes del bonapartismo, Cambacérès y Lebrun; Talleyrand y Eugène de Beauharnais, para citar algunos, además de los hermanos de Napoleón y la mismísima Josephine, coronada Emperatriz a su vez. El cuadro ha sido objeto de muchísimos análisis y comentarios, para efectos de nuestro interés analítico, baste destacar dos cosas sumamente importantes, en primer lugar lo obvio, la auto-coronación, en tanto símbolo de la separación, Estado Iglesia, el Sumo Pontífice, de ese momento, Pio VII, Napoleón se proclama Emperador y, sin embargo, no le permite al Papa imponerle la Corona Imperial, con lo cual evidencia la Independencia o autonomía, del poder político del poder espiritual y religioso, del catolicismo romano, reafirmando una forma de poder totalmente humano y terrenal, al menos en las materias, del dominio terrenal, si se quisiera o prefiriese emplear dicho lenguaje. No obstante, buscando un poco, en la Teoría de las Esferas, es imposible ignorar, la Corona Imperial, con la presencia del Globus Cruciger, la figura simbólica tradicional, del poder real o imperial, sobre el orbe y el mundo entero, en nombre de la cristiandad, la cual incluso se puede claramente reconocer en la mismísima Tiara Papal. Desde el célebre análisis del mural de Torre Annunziata, Nunziata en el dialecto napolitano, la idea de la esfera o del globo, domina la extensa reflexión y construcción de la Teoría de las Esferas o simplemente Esferología, como la formulara Peter Sloterdyk, en los tres conocidos volúmenes de Sphären. El Globus Cruciger, sobre la cabeza de la figura del poder imperial, real o incluso religioso, el caso del Sumo Pontífice, nos lleva a una serie de análisis simbólicos, que no son nuestra intención traer cuenta, más aún la necesaria y casi inevitable alusión a la Merkabah (מרכבה) y sus complejos senderos de estudio, desbordan y rebasan los límites de nuestra intención, que no es otra más, que el establecimiento ab initio, de la simbología napoleónica – tema de por si también, complicado – como introducción a un fenómeno muy antiguo y a su vez, muy reciente, el retorno bajo nuevas formas, en algunos casos, en otros es idéntico a sus orígenes, de la vinculación, del poder y su expresión actual, vía las tendencias Neo-teocráticas, imperantes y operantes, de maneras nada sutiles, dentro de las formas de hacer política y, más cercana a los objetivos de este corto análisis, que es la conducción de la política exterior.

La cuestión de la laicidad del Estado y las libertades religiosas, que surgen tal vez con el bonapartismo, para unos, para otros, una nada simpática experiencia histórica, todo lo contrario, las guerras napoleónicas devastaron el continente europeo, generaron fracciones y divisiones, unas no evidentes y semi-ocultas, las otras no tanto, se podría quizás ver a Napoleon, como un gran globalizador, en términos mas metafóricos, que reales, o más bien es cuestión del asunto de las tiranías opresoras, invasoras y destructoras. La laicidad, de clara inspiración europea, se fue imponiendo a lo largo del Continente americano, principalmente desde las guerras de Independencia y no fue un fenómeno o movimiento avasallante, enfrentó oposición y lucha férrea, guerras internas y grandes tragedias. Desde el México de Juarez hasta la Argentina y el Uruguay, el nacimiento del constitucionalismo latinoamericano, venía acompañado, del principio de la separación del Estado y la Iglesia. Los viejos conflictos, entre las Logias Masónicas y la Iglesia Católica subyacen a lo largo y lo ancho, de la historia política y jurídica del constitucionalismo y la política latinoamericanas. Sin entrar a reconstruir una historia ampliamente relatada y documentada, con unas consecuencias claras y sumamente adversas, esa sorda lucha, en unos casos, peleada abierta y militarmente inclusive, empaño y desvió los caminos y rutas constitucionales latinoamericanas, impactando todos los niveles de la vida ciudadana y política. Exilios, conjuras, incautaciones, expropiación de bienes e inclusos crímenes políticos y hasta magnicidios, de crueles y siniestras consecuencias, marcaron el sendero de las poblaciones latinoamericanas, en búsqueda de construir sociedades modernas y pujantes, justas y prósperas. Los grandes historiadores latinoamericanos han documentado extensamente ésta enorme tragedia. Sin embargo, volvamos a la esfera, al Globus Cruciger y su significación, en la construcción de un poder global y omnímodo.

Aunque la idea del análisis del globalismo alrededor de la idea de la esfera, como símbolo total de la imagen de la perfección, una idea griega en realidad, en la esfera no había ni principio ni fin, todo está incluido dentro de la esfericidad, de la misma. La presencia de la esfera a lo largo de tantísimos siglos, en diferentes e incluso circunstancias evidentemente, sin relación alguna, en la más mínima forma, eventos, ceremonias o por demás, actos y hechos, totalmente dispares, tránsitos temporales completamente alejados, aunque en algunos casos, la presencia continuado de la presencia, de la esfera, de manera completamente deliberada, se podría decir, como si fuera un deliberado símbolo del poder global y terrenal, bajo la cruz, lo cual es y fue un constructo teorético y concreto, en su plena dureza de realidad, la idea del Sacro Imperio Romano-Germánico, bajo la concepción de un orbe unificado y en torno a la cristiandad, no es para nada mera casualidad. Evitando esa tentación, aunque muy atrayente, los fenómenos posteriores derivados del uso extenso, de una simbología deliberada, cargada de contenidos y mensajes, algunos herméticos y secretos, otros transparentes y sin ningún tipo de disimulos o confusiones intencionales. La esfera del poder esta allí y sigue estándolo, como forma de dominio imperial, religioso, sabiduría oculta, alianzas de grupos ocultos o tantas otras formas de pensarla y concretarla. Hay un factor del uso de esta simbología, que es sumamente problemático, hacerla caer, en la mano o cabeza, de un individuo, seleccionado, por razones nada evidentes, sea vía descendencias, líneas de sangre, linajes de otros tipos, como suelen serlo hoy día prevalentemente, económico-politicos, formados y consolidados, en dinastías ligadas al destino de pueblos, naciones o cuestionables sentidos de inevitabilidad o privilegios basados, en argumentos débiles sustentados, en tradiciones o prácticas supuestamente inmutables, no son ya más suficientes, para enarbolar la esfera del poder. El legado napoleónico, de ninguna manera totalmente extinto, vivo y vigente todavía, en instituciones jurídicas y otras formas, compite, con los viejos enemigos de siempre, esas otras formas de poder, que llevaron al Emperador de los franceses al exilio y posteriormente a su desaparición física. Auto erigirse en poseedor de los secretos de la esfera del poder y de manera publica y ostensible, relegar a un segundo lugar a los poderes dueños originales de la esfera del poder, antiguos conservadores y preservadores de secretos, solamente reservados, para aquellos cuantos, que conocen y manejan los códigos antiquísimos, de las lecturas, capaces de descifrar, la antigua sabiduría contenida, en la esfera misma. No es delirio y de ninguna manera, fantasías llenas de exaltada imaginación, las razones ocultas son sencillamente, las más poderosas y determinantes y Napoleon supo y vivió personalmente, esas consecuencias. Alumbraba una nueva realidad, no necesariamente distinta, que llevo en desbocada carrera a la locura y la insanía, de las guerras y de la destrucción.

Esa antigua batalla, de alguna manera aún librándose, entre el anticlericalismo y el laicismo, marcó una muy larga etapa de las realidades occidentales, no está totalmente ausente, ha sufrido una transmutación y la presencia e introducción de nuevos factores, modificó dramáticamente las posiciones clásicas, la segunda mitad del pasado siglo vio surgir construcciones intelectuales y teoréticas, las cuales no sólo, reformaron los paradigmas, en tanto que modelos fijos, desplazando el énfasis a otras y distintas, mas radicales incluso, posiciones y las viejas confrontaciones, drásticamente transformadas, vieron unas nuevas formas de enfrentamientos, los antiguos enemigos no lo eran más, aunque los campos seguían enfrentados, las herramientas y los instrumentos de lucha, eran muy distintos. Algunos de los añejos conservadores mutaron en revolucionarios – incluso armados y violentos -, invocaron profundas renovaciones y visiones teológicas actualizadas, deviniendo en vanguardias y lo sempiternamente conservado y visto, como inmovible, inmutable, cambio radicalmente. Incluso la centenaria “teología del amor” paso a ser “teología de la espada”, curiosamente los textos sagrados, fundamentan las dos versiones, la de la caridad y la entrega y la de la fuego y la espada. Del compromiso con y por los pobres se llego a la lucha por la liberación de los desposeídos, explotados y ultrajados, por las vías armadas y violentas, nuevamente por la espada, si ese fuera el caso y lo fue en mas de una ocasión. La sorpresa y el asombro generado por esa demanda y compromiso se tradujo, en abandono, migraron los otrora lideres y guardianes, hacia una expresión y confesión, basada en el individuo y su relación directa y personal, sin mediaciones, con el Creador. Creció así y de manera acelerada, una confesión rival de la dominante, una que había nacido de la Reforma, en la vieja Europa, que se revelaba al designio único Papal y Romano. La Reforma, con su luchas internas, no solamente vía disputas teológicas, también vio blandirse la espada y en más de una ocasión, se recurrió al uso de la misma, para imponer creencias y principios de una fe supuestamente renovada, la cual lentamente se fue alejando de la tradicional visión romana, una separación muy particular, donde una practica esencialmente comunitaria, donde la fe se vivía y practicaba, en comunidad, lentamente fue cediendo a una especia de centralismo individual, construido incluso, en mayores rigidez, con menor espacio, para las hermenéutica e interpretaciones teológicamente arriesgadas, donde el imperio del texto era y sigue siendo absoluto. Los espacios de disidencias se fueron cerrando y la lectura fija y repetitiva, de textos traducidos, se convirtió en la regla suprema y única. Tenia ésta visión, muchos espacios de comodidad, para quienes tenían miedo de perder su identidad privilegiada. Así los viejos enemigos se convirtieron en aliados y los antiguos aliados tornaron, en enemigos. No había mucho espacio para la laicidad y las libertades religiosas, aunque se predicaran y se defendieran, en textos jurídicamente sagrados también, las retóricas eran vacías y meramente proselitistas. Las Neo-teocracias se consolidaban lenta e inexorablemente. La moral del lucro no solamente fomentaba, alentaba y permitía el enriquecimiento, hasta justificaba la acumulación, de riquezas y posesiones – claro con los pagos y contribuciones del caso, vía diezmos u otros caminos -, invadió literalmente la política, bajo mandatos, de inspiración divina, inició su lento camino y proceso de establecimiento y expansión, de una presencia renovada, más impetuosa – actuando bajo un dictum divino, ordenado directamente por el mismísimo Creador – y su férreo puño empezó a cerrarse alrededor de la política misma. Sus actores dicen tener una comunicación directa y son receptores, de esos mandatos divinos, a los que obedecen, sin ninguna duda, convirtiéndolos, en una nueva legión de profetas ungidos, destinados a cumplir los designios sagrados revelados exclusivamente a todos aquellos, que están facultados a escuchar y ejecutar. Un no tan silencioso asombro invade a quienes observan y se debaten, para comprender cómo semejante renovación se ha impuesto, por muchas partes del mundo. Los llamados Ministros de Culto, en el lenguaje del constitucionalismo latinoamericano, gobiernan, ganan elecciones, incluso, administran justicia, su presencia es completa y absoluta.

Sin embargo, es en el ámbito de la política exterior e incluso de la diplomacia misma y sus prácticas, que su presencia y participación se ha hecho cada vez más notoria, especialmente en Estados cuyas dirigencias y lideres, son no solamente Ministros de Culto, sino más aún, figuras religiosas, dentro de sus propias comunidades. Hay una constante y permanente, fluida incluso, interacción, entre lideres políticos, gobernantes y prominentes figuras religiosas, Rabinos, Pastores, Obispos y otros más, tanto a nivel nacional, como internacional, en un esfuerzo por alcanzar acuerdos o, sin mayores disimulos, impulsar agendas, sea por la vía de la influencia, del poder o por medios mas amistosos, constantemente se recurre a este tipo de formas de ejercer dominio. Así podemos apreciar, que los debates actuales, sobre los límites de las soberanías nacionales, las interferencias extranjeras, vía diversas maneras, cooperación o seguridad, tal vez las más ostensible, la administración de justicia y la persecución de las organizaciones criminales, que operan internacionalmente, lavado de activos y tantos otros extremadamente sensibles, están profundamente impregnados, por visiones y concepciones, que muchas veces inclusivo entran en conflicto, con normas y principios del Derecho Internacional. Cuando el principio de la no intervención y no injerencia es invocado, por un Estado que se ve amenazado, por las políticas más agresivas de otro más poderoso, se generan confrontaciones, de consecuencias inclusive desagradables y hasta peligrosas, nuevamente y de forma reiterada, se recurre a lobbys formales o informales, profesionales o sencillamente, buenos oficios, para exponer puntos y buscar cambiar políticas o posiciones, en favor de otras agendas, fuertemente ligadas a grupos de interés ligados a grupos religiosos, de distintas confesiones, que operan interna y externamente. De allí que veamos una naciente conformación neo-teocrática, en el ejercicio del poder publico e inclusive, en las políticas mismas formuladas, por gobiernos en pleno ejercicio. La anhelada separación Iglesia/Estado tiene hoy limites muy tenues y plagados, de claroscuros. Tal vez históricamente, nunca ha sido real, antes más discreta – aunque hay momentos, en los cuales ha salido incluso a hacer la guerra y hay muchos ejemplos de esto -, durante algunos momentos y en otros sencillamente abierta e inequívocamente militante.

Una reflexión final puede ser de alguna utilidad, hemos apostado de manera casi universal, por el multilateralismo y sus instituciones, una cuidadosa arquitectura de Tratados y otros instrumentos internacionales, establecimientos de Cortes con jurisdicción universal – aunque esto es aún una aspiración, la Corte Penal no ha alcanzado todavía la universalidad deseada, grandes potencias se resisten a adherirse al Estatuto de Roma y ser Estados partes – y, penosamente, vemos que esos grandes esfuerzas, vía una larga serie de Organismos, Organizaciones y demás formulas empleadas, la debilidad del Sistema se profundiza. Hay muchísimas causas y razones, que podrían explicar los fracasos y debilidades internas y externas del Sistema, el asunto de la membresía del Consejo de Seguridad permanece en un infructuoso debate, los tamaños de las economías, genera una enorme disparidad, en una membresía, claramente política y demasiado sumida, en unos tiempos superados, mantener la exclusividad, basados en acuerdos logrados al final de las grandes guerras del Siglo pasado, no reflejan una realidad mundial, que reclama una renovación y modificaciones necesarias, los cinco miembros permanentes, con ese complicado “derecho al veto”, excluyen economías mucho mayores, que algunos de sus miembros permanentes, Japón y y Alemania, con economías muchísimo mas grandes, esperan y promueven, con poco éxito, una modificación de las presentes condiciones; Japón y Alemania juntos, por recurrir a un muy obvio ejemplo, tienen economías, las cuales juntas suman más de 10 trillones de dólares, India no sólo tiene una economía mayor también, que algunos de los miembros permanentes y su derecho a veto, es uno de los mayores contribuyentes al Sistema. No es necesario y no cabe aquí, extenderse en estos temas; sin embargo, son de utilidad suma, para ver con claridad la necesidad urgente, de emprender esas reformas, nada fáciles de consensuar y tal vez el Deus ex machina, vigente en los nuevos modelos Neo-teocráticos, implemente formulas diferentes, para rescatar las visiones, hoy muy perdidas, de eso viejos y permanente ideales, de paz, seguridad, prosperidad y generosidad humana, que podrían sustentar y preservar una humanidad permeada y a la merced de fuerzas obscuras y siniestras deshumanizantes.

The Makers of Peace. On men and war.

Roberto Palomo-Silva

The Peacemakers, 1868 by George Peter Alexander Healy. The White House Historical Association, White House Collection.

The recent events unfolding literally in-front of our very own eyes, due to the war coverage of the major American and others, news outlets, either/or privately or even State owned television networks and other means of mass communication, turned humanity as such – this is a world wide event – into an spectator of unimaginable destruction, bestiality and barbarity, seen and followed by millions even billions of viewers from every nation of the world. Horror, atrocities and all the worst of mankind comes out in war in the name of some abstract concepts and on grounds of political ambitions of individuals, becoming tyrants or inhumane monsters of destruction and bringers of pain and hurt to countless human beings, children, defenceless pregnant human, the elderly, whom we have witness with utmost amazement and a very deep anger, coming from impotence and total dismay. How to stop a war when both parties are drawn into a deepening abyss of destruction, annihilation and different forms of hate? The behaviour and acts of States attacking another State a neighbouring country, fully recognised as such by the international community and all its legal instruments, the general framework so painfully built to leave in peace and harmony and eve more, in the view of Customary International Law, is clearly punishable according to International Consensual Law and International General Law when flagrant violations are being witnessed by the world at large. Individuals capable of such atrocities pursuing inhumane goals as total destruction of cities its hospitals and schools, housing students and sick persons seeking treatment or women with children, like the case of a pregnant women being carried out in a stretcher by merciful hands, a doctor struggle and fought intensely to save the both of them, sadly they died. The husband and other family member came quietly to retrieve the bodies as of now the names remain unknown. We honour the memories of the fallen ones. We read at loud the names of the victims, we celebrate their memories and we do it not only as an act of kindness and generosity but for duty and admiration too. We build memorials and monuments, light candles pursue with the utmost conviction to respect their memories and in the name of their suffering, claim for justice, unambiguous justice. Names are written on walls so they shall never be forgotten. We call “for never more”, “never more”, nonetheless it keeps happening.

And then to the question, if mankind has historically wedged war for a very large series of reasons, the hope that Europe after the catastrophe of the las two great wars and others fought in other continents and parts of the world, where also horrendous acts of inhumanity were committed and exterminations of other populations were sought and executed, the pace makers stablished and international system of legally binding – a vast majority – instruments to protect and safeguard humanity from its very dark side, the one that looks for wars and seeks after the unleashing of the deadly horseman that carries the name of war, Ezekiel calls it “sword” and the most famous one or at least, the more notorious is the second horseman of the Apocalypse, who rides a red horse and its named as “war” and maintains the Ezekiel reference of the “carrier of the sword”. The wild and evil beasts that room the earth and the wielding of the sword as an ultimate act of punishment, probably this idea of the punishment of God or the Trial of God tells the story of how intricate and complex man’s relationship with war and its sprouting and transformation in this manifold horrible entity that even seems to have taken a life and a form for itself. Enter the United Nations. The plural form or “We”, meaning the peoples of the United Nations the so-called “survivors of the scourge of war”, designed and built a system in which the human persons could leave in peace and ruled by fulfilling and abiding to the obligations from Treaties and other sources of International Law, enabling all peoples of the world to coexist in respect and dignity within the framework of the absence of the wielding of the sword. We are very far from achieving such goals. We struggle with the sword and our world institutions stablished and ultimately created, to stop the destructive power of the second horsemen and the wild and evil beasts, seem to be overwhelmed and incapables of producing the outcomes outlined by the hopes and ideals of the visionaries, the peace makers, contained in the “charter of dreams”.

The recent ruling issue by the International Court of Justice, on the 16 of March, indicating Provisional Measures comes as an extraordinary effort by the World’s most prestigious international tribunal, on an effort to stop the war, in its Order that carries binding effects, the Court orders to the Russian Federation, “…immediately suspend the military operations that it commenced on 24 February 2022 in the territory of Ukraine…”; a second Measure that expressly ascertains to prevent any “furtherance” of military operations and of regular and irregular forces or individual under his direct command and support; both Measures were adopted by 13 votes in favour and 2 against, being thus, the Russian and Chinese votes, issued by two distinguished and highly regard Jurists, Justices Gevorgian from the Russian Federation and current Vice-president of the Court and Justice Xue of China, who appended as well as Justice Gevorgian, declarations to the Order by the Court; on a third Measure, indicated by the Court, was unanimously indicated: “Both Parties shall refrain from any action which might aggravate or extend the dispute before the Court or make it more difficult to resolve.” The construction of the said Measures is grounded on the the Court’s extensive jurisprudence as well as other sources of International Consensual Law , the Court declared jurisdiction and adjudicated the Case submitted by Ukraine and challenged by the Russian Federation, questioning the jurisdiction of the Court whilst invoking the article IX of the UN Convention on the Presentation and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide adopted under UN Resolution 260 A (III) from 1948 and its entry into force on 1951. Both the Russian Federation and China challenged the jurisdiction of the Court on a matter not covered under the Convention. The intricate legal discussion is of a very high level – like the Court historically has constantly maintained – however, the Prima Facie decision undertaken by the Court is founded not on the scope of the Convention which clearly doesn’t regulates the use of force between States nor recognition of statehood. Nonetheless, the Court very carefully threads the argument of eventual irreparable harm – which seems to be abundantly clear is taking place, the atrocities committed are blatant and flagrant – and the irreparable prejudice might create conditions – in fact on the ground is happening as well – beyond repair, maybe it would be opportune to remember the so called Higgins Rule – we are here referencing the great British internationalist Dame Rosalind Higgins former President of the Court too – that the Court when an application is submitted “the Court ought to accept pro term the facts as alleged by the Applicant to be true” and thus adjudicate and consider the merits of the Case on a further stage. The prima face test. Finally, the Court agreed unanimously on a third Measure – the Court has the power to indicate the requested Measures or others that might deem necessary, which is the present case – to which Justices Gevorgian and Xue added their respective affirmative votes: ” Both Parties shall refrain from any action which might aggravate or extend the dispute before the Court or make it more difficult to resolve.”. Remembering one of the more important principles that the Theory of Controversies, all controversies grow in depth if remain unsolved, this is clearly the case and we continuo to see the horrors of war as it inflicts indescribable pain and hurt to civilian population, the elderly, women and children, innocent lives are being severed and damage, in the language of Court, irreparable harm is committed constantly true the aggression conducted by the invading army of the Russian Federation, sadly and with a very heavy heart we acknowledged that the indicated Measures and the Order of the Court, in spite being binding, remains largely unfulfilled and the Russian Federation – in complete disobedience of the Order and breaching Humanitarian International Law – continuous it war of aggression against a neighbouring State and member of the United Nations with total violence and Europe suffers in its own territory another war, echoes from a not so distant past, when the “winds of war” blew savagely throughout the whole Continent, crimes are committed on a daily basis and certain tyrannic pseudo leaders of peoples cynical actions of destruction and terror inflicting inhumane suffering to a population largely victimised and deprived of the minimum dignity and respect demanded as persons by all the instruments of International Law that both States are parties to.

There’s clearly something beyond the realm of law. Human lives, human persons, individual existences are being not only terrorised but damaged beyond repair, we call that irreparable harm. Intervention in the form of military intervention to safeguard peoples or populations from tyranny and abuse has been claimed and used for centuries nonetheless in this case isn’t a very sound argument. Initiating a war of aggression on the basis of protection or to use International Law’s own terminology, the question of the “legality on the use of force” remains an elusive matter but to use this argument to commit the acts that we have been witnessing, although the famous formula coined under the “responsibility to protect” or as is known R2T, a so called “emerging norm” that doesn’t carry yet the binding condition but rather a political weight, can only by invoked if all peaceful means to solve any controversies had been fully an duly exhausted. Diplomacy as the sole mean to peace most remain at the core of all conflicts and controversies. However let us not forget that the Measures Indicated by the Court are binding to both parties so the war of aggression initiated by the leaders of the Russian Federation – it is always important to distinguished between peoples and their leaders, sometimes as is the present case, they are not necesarely liked minded – arguing that genocide is being conducted and crimes are being committed against the Russian population in Ukraine seems rather cynical to say the least. Once again we most bear in mind at all times that Ius in bellum and Ius ad bellum most be distinguished and are not to be confused with one another. The disrespect for Humanitarian International Law in the conflict is largely appalling and the breach and disobedience, the total lack of comply, the disobedience or transgression of binding instruments of International Consensual Law and Customary International Law governing this matter, the fall into forms of barbarism and brutality, cannot remain ignored nor fall into deafness and silence.

So many essential legal and judicial issues are at stake here. If the most important international Court ever created cannot stop the war and one party remains not only defiant but comminting atrocities without any sort of remorse, bombarding hospitals and schools, our hopes and dreams for an international accountability suffer a severe set back. We most be careful to draw the line and not extended the blame and shame to the Russian people, most of them probably do not know what exactly is happening on a neighbouring State which has been historically and emotionally linked to the Russian Empire and its culture and ways of life. So much can be told in this intricate subject, just to quote one of this extraordinary significant moments in history, serves as an example of the closeness of the bonds, many more and probably more relevant ones but probably it is best to recall when in 1945, the Yalta Conference was held, we all know that Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill sat together to reshape the world after the horrible war in Europe and some famous photos where taken and will forever be a part of history, as mentioned the Yalta Conference was also called the Crimea Conference and was held precisely in Crimea at the Livadia Palace and the Yusupov and Vorontsvov Palaces. The peace makers. In the very famous painting used as an introduction and inspiration perhaps to the current post, Lincoln sits with the Generals that conducted the Civil War on behalf of the North and seemingly ended it, we see seated in the after cabin of the Union steamer River Queen we find Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, President Abraham Lincoln, and Rear Adm. David D. Porter. The War Generals turned into peace makers and builders of new worlds. We have seen this transformation so many times in history, fierce enemies building peace, lasting peace between peoples and former rivals. Sometimes some of them have fallen to the haters of peace, many illustrious names can be named and should at all times be called out loud. However, the idea that war most be wedged to bring peace is not only a very dangerous one but also cannot be and never has been or will ever be, extent of the atrocities and horrors that war unleashes on human beings, human persons after all they are the centre and core of the meaning of a life leaved in peace.

The Big Three at the 1945 Yalta Conference.

Closer than we think more apart than we wish: on impossible encounters.

Roberto Palomo-Silva

El Dios del Fuego. Carlos Merida,1948.
Dagoberto Vásquez. Mona Lisa, 1988.

The ever present debate on the scope and limits of the idea of “the west” continuous to be alive and suffering trough different forms and accolades for the sole purpose of debating wether the limits of “the west” can be sufficiently stablished. “The West” is not a mere geographical concept we know that with enough and robust – to steal a term currently employed widely and coming from the epidemiologist language -, it’s use is falling into the category or semiotics of a “cultural jargon”, so therefore there is robust evidence regarding the conception of the limits and scoped of “the west”, the German language refers to “the west” with the term “Abenland, Abenlands“, if we could think back on Trakl’s great poetry and with a benevolent employment of the quasi sacred term, the west is the land of the night, although Australia, New Zealand and other so-called “western countries”, at least according to the United Nations terminology referring originally to the “western europeans and others” a group not entirely free of serious internal contradictions, Turkey is a member and some other countries that are clearly a part of western culture constitute other regional groups in spite of their history and obvious western origins, thus being the case of the Latin American countries – notoriously grounded and founded, constituted on western values – however they rather form their own regional group and not only due to political or geopolitical realities but probably and mainly so, because of conflictive views and historically complicated relations with their older cousins. The controversy and debate on the meaning of the term, West, is taking first stage nowadays, not only on political theatres but even on Academia – where it’s been revised, deconstructed from sometimes and now – specially when other emerging so-called new theories take central stage – a strong case can be made on the controversy surrounding the notion of “critical race theory”, amongst other principal leading conceptions – and art, art history is no stranger to this crucial controversy, ever expanding controversy.

The question of Latin America being or pertaining to the West has been debated since the origins and begins of the New World. Whilst the United States has been an unquestionable member or part of the western world, origins are likely the same, colonised by European powers and powers at war sometimes within themselves too. The Imperial Britain wagged all sort of wars against the Spanish Crown, not to forget the buccaneers and pirate constant attacks of Spanish vessels and ships all over the Atlantic Ocean as a new theatre of war. One of the central events that can be said, reshape, redefined Europe, took place between the Spanish Crown and the Crown of England, namely the Catalina de Aragon controversy – so called ‘divorce’, a forceful and even violent separation – that redefined European history, the already split and divergence between the emerging reformed countries and the Mediterranean Catholic Kingdoms. The story is so well know that doesn’t need another retelling or recounting facts remain and the clear outcome of a King’s wish turns into a disastrous series of events that conclude unraveling more dramatic and unforeseen consequences that brought about division and wars, heroism and conflicts over principles and belief and probably more significantly a different configuration of powers with grave and profound influence on the construction of the New World. The West cannot exist without the Judaeo-Christian conception of the world. Axiological systems coexisted although divided by theological interpretation of the Godspells and the stories narrated on the Book even more, the administration of Faith – a central topic of the bitter fight – becomes utterly significative. Rome rule on all matters is challenged on all aspects of life and the authority of the Pope and the Church as such, becomes not only the source of a harshly contested questioning but also disrupts and brings elements not before seen on European history. The long standing domination of the Pope and the Church on all matters of Faith became disputed and new formulas to be a real and truthful follower of the teachings of Jesus dethrone the ancient order and establish not only an incoming doctrine but transforms everyday practices for the common and not excluded too, nobility and royalty itself. As beheadings and fake trials, inquisitorial tribunals conducted questionable processes and condemnation of innocent people in many European kingdoms, ravaged everyday lives at all levels not excluding, as is well known, even Kings and Queens whose heads fell to the rage and hate of the imposing wills of new rulers and quasi prophets.

The New World struggled mightily with different issues, some were prevalent and horrendous, discrimination, servitude, abhor-able lack of recognitions of human condition – specially to what entails the infamous Inter Caetera Bull of 1493 issued by the Borgia Pope, Alexander VI – and wrights to enslave and own human beings, a colossal tragedy of immense consequences all over the world and specially in our own Continent. All done in the Name of King and the Glory of God. Exploitation and inhumane practices were enforced and stablished throughout the Continent, in the oceans the trafficking of persons, enslavement and cruelty beyond boundaries rampantly grew and shaped a macabre version of how colonisation and domination of the discovered lands and its inhabitants constructed an expansion of the West into the building of a vast domain, caught between the ancient world and its ancient ways and the unbeknown future slowly growing in the New World. Marvell and horror, monstrosity and heroism paired themselves and simultaneously gave birth to an extraordinary but very painful and hurtful new reality, impregnated with the wonders of the ancient world and its inherited maladies. Side by side nations were formed, wars were fought to liberate and generate newer forms of living and self ruling. Disparity and wealth, modernisation and change introduced distinct patterns of construction and destruction. Something new aggressively took hold of long and venerable traditions, ancient civilisations and cultures succumb to the power of the horse and the powder. Birth came to no surprise under extreme pain. Sometimes the pain of birth was also the pain of annihilation and even extinction although not all the entire old world fell to the path of iron and steel. Some of the older ways still are present, silently and maybe even discretely and others more vocal and demanding. The old ways learnt to speak the language of the new ways and in a blending of old-and-new, transformed its original pains and hurts into articulated and well thought modern demands and wrights. The phantoms of the past are nowadays the silenced cries for justice and equality. Voices are heard throughout the New World agin finally into a slowly establishing spirit of generosity and recognition, respect and living equally with the differences. It is happening – not at the pace and rhythm we wish or want – however slow and inadequate it might seem but is nonetheless showing the green sprouts of hope.

Both paintings that I have used for my present post, are from two extraordinary Guatemalan main and most respected artist, Carlos Merida and Dagoberto Vásquez, one is called El Dios del Fuego, The God of Fire and the other one Mona Lisa. Looking carefully it is very easy to recognise European painting techniques, trends more properly said, followers of certain dominant schools of expression, one can broadly said that abstractionism and cubism are to some extent, others as well, present and relevant on both paintings. Masterfully created, thought, conceived and crafted. The blending of European conceptions and Guatemalan hands, minds and souls. Guatemala as many other or all of the Latin American Countries are filled with wonderful artists, writers, poets as is practically world wide acknowledge. Some have created new languages and emerged as creators of the mixing of the Old with the New World. Ancient forms of expressions and the recounting of stories where texts and narratives, images over all, come together with new ways of expressions, new languages and creativity. The Old Europe meets the Old Latin America. In the Spanish language we often talk about “mestizaje” – not to be confused with the infamous term miscegenation, as the iconic 1967 Ruling of the Supreme Court stablished unequivocally and unanimously on the case between Loving versus Virginia – and I prefer to use the plural form because it has and encompasses, engulfs, multiple semantic layers, complex stadiums of meaning, highly complex. The encounter of the worlds either as a clash and a later coming into a lengthy transformation that emerges from destruction to creation, is not completed, continuous to be a moving and transforming, deconstructing process if you want to introduce such term, the new emerges slowly from the new and the old threatening menaces of the past lurk from the dark and have not vanished entirely. A Latin American Mona Lisa, such is Vásquez’s case, a historical symbol of beauty and exquisiteness, transformed into another form of expression as like small children sucking the thumb, treating to emerge and borne into a newly shaped imaginary and maintaining the rebellious spirit of the times, within the scope and limits of the old artistic language and using its symbology, the thumb calls as a well known symbol, the domains of the new beauty and exquisiteness translated or deconstructing the old ways but using its iconic styles and forms to utter the slow coming-into-life of the blended new forms. Throughout the whole Continent – and Canada and the United States as well – this constant shopping and re-shapping, constructing and deconstructing, blending as mestizaje constantly takes place, sometimes manifesting as free art, pure and sheer creation others, violently emerging out of fire and powder, pain and death.

Carlos Merida’s God of Fire, el Dios del Fuego, clearly uses a title and an iconography stemming from the Ancient Mayan Gods, Guatemala has a long an illustrious list of artists and painters that produce remarkable works of art bringing together both worlds. The old speaks out trough the languages of the cultural movements and conceptions deriving from the European great artistic traditions. If – and not only his name is essentially tied to this conceptualisation of artistic expressions – we select or single out one name, we can easily fall in the lack of attention, the artistic movement in Guatemala is very large and fruitful to extraordinary levels. Same can be extended to all of the artistic creation, literature and poetry also, the name of Humberto Akabal, comes out immediately and his body of work, written in both languages he mastered, represent an example of the old voices coming out aloud, in its original rhythm and tone, the notes of a profound and deep experience shines in the poetic-praying of the ancient languages. Once again we insist, this is an extended experience shared by all the nations of the Continent that once named once the New World. A unique and most individual manner to approach the encounter of the West and its transformation on a bi-facial expression, two sides of the emergence: the mystery of the meztisaje and the powerful response of the new reality, the westernisation of the new and the manifestation of the newly born reality on the blending of the nascent New World. However if this reflection on the nascent emerging realities of the blending of the ancient and old, paradoxically being both ancient worlds, that come to meet in the most extraordinary ways and sadly this emergence, comes trough the power of powder and death, pain and sacrifice, something truly extraordinary brings newer light to the lands of the night whilst it encounters in and older world a newer and fresher expression of the never-ending questions of the mystery of mankind.

On the return of the absurd a newer form of neoexistentialism. The pandemic and the pain of the soul.

Roberto Palomo-Silva

Salvador Dalí, The ghost of Vermeer van Delft which can be used as a table (Phenomenological theory of furniture nutrition), 1934. Salvador Dalí Museum, St. Petersburg, Florida.

On the Netflix series The Chair a marvellous conversation takes place between Sandra Oh, Ji-Yoon and the Dean of the Faculty, Paul Larson, played by David Morse, around a future Lecturer none other than David Duchovny as Himself, which Yi-Joon severely and vehemently challenges. Ji-Yoo comes to the surprise that Duchovny – a true reference is important to quote here – had been working on a Dissertation for his doctoral degree on Samuel Beckett’s body of work focusing primarily on the Novellas. The Dissertation has only been partially completed, namely the first chapter, hasn’t work anymore on it and intents to renew his research to finish the task. When the Dean and The Chair – just recently appointed/selected – clash on the choosing, the mentioned chapter is given to her so she will conduct an interview or hold a meeting with Duchovny afterwards. The meeting actually takes place, under bizarre circumstances, to say the least, the discussion finally occurs and views are aired and not precisely in the best of manners and ways. The argument raised by Ji-Yoon relates to an outdated approach or conceptions that won’t relate to the current student’s perceptions and preferences. The story leads to a series of arguments and awkward interactions constituting the core of a very funny/dramatic telling of a very complex reality and the constant movement on the intellectual and academic field where professor, researchers, students and, of course, administrators live and collide constantly on essential and almost allegoric cases of absurdity and dramatic episodes. Wether certain conception should be ruled out -frankly none should be cancelled, to use an expression widely employed nowadays- after all academia is the quintessential wold of freedom is grounded and sustained on the practice of unrestrictive freedom, formally at least, administration always have the last saying on the limits and boundaries of the excessive of true freedom. Politics and funding are the big deciders. Retirement, age of retirement, conditions, times, what is appropriate behaviour of an actually serving professor, how, where and when exercising certain pedagogical methods can be acceptable or not, above all, are at the end students clients of a business, a very lucrative one, by the way, thus being the alternative a more deeper and truer meaning of education, higher education in the current case, the old ideals of a forgotten paideia rooted in long term values and visions of the world and mankind, suddenly The Chair places us on the debate of the absurd, we come once again face to face with the question of wether life isn’t pregnant with the malady of absurdity, where meaning is almost impossible to be found.

Current day living has created a unique experience for humanity as a whole. We can be certain to stress the fact that everybody is sharing this extraordinary events on all corners of the world: death has become again a collective experience not only an individual one. The Death-of-the-Other is were the meaning of our own death arises. Existential analytic of the Dasein which is the friendlier and more extensive use of the Heidegger concept introduced on Sein und Zeit – which is about to become 100 years young, as we approached 2027 the year of its publication or jubilee, am very curious what kind of celebration if any might take place – the so called ontological difference stablished the ontic-ontological differentiation between the Being that has and actually carries existence as Dasein and the other beings as such. Heidegger’s language is a precise construct of terms rooted literally on one an another. Since the beginning there’s a vast thinking on language and trough language as an “enabler” of thought. This reference leads us – and that is the reason of its inclusion here – to the post-war debate around existentialism following perhaps Sartre’s and other very important French thinkers and the German version of the Existenzphilosophie as used by Karl Jaspers for example and Heidegger’s own distancing from the term existentialism. Nonetheless, concepts and terms were commonly shared, absurd is one of them, regardless of the nature of the language of preference. We are deeply falling into absurdity. It never ceases to confront us from its obscure nauseating realm. Since the time when Antoine Roquentin went trough the quasi sweetness of the radical, extreme experience called “La nausée” and the world around him turned into a complete somber meaningless chaos, including the others. It sadly seems that we’re in the face of absurdity. The never ending pandemic, politicians loosing all values and spreading inaccuracies not say purely lies and exaggerations, scientist serving politicians and power individuals or worst, gigantic corporations acting cynically and egotistically. The individual existence is succumbing to what the existential analysis of the Dasein called “a public state of interpretation”, one of the “existenzialien” that constitutes inauthenticity. The nothingness lurks from the shadow of non-being.

We face an array of almost daily onslaught of doomsday scenarios. The news report constant misinformation, quasi scientifically studies or pseudo science broadcasting and announcing an apocalyptic outcome. From all fields of human knowledge absurdity emerges or simply crawls into the mainstream world of the never-ending series of lies and exaggerations. It is not as simply as that. Frankly is demonically complicated. Not only truth is constantly challenged, questioned and a certain and relaxed “relativity or relaxation” prays on common sense and reason. Scientist, respected and recognized , switch magically their crucial roles to become voices of politicians or serve even without any form of remorse, partisan interest. The times of the Ronquentin experience seem to stage a robust reappearance, reemerging from the silence of forgetfulness a new wave of nausiatic collapse onto the individual existence. Meaning dissolves into some sort of not so sweet downfall on a nausea experience. The great French writer and thinker Albert Camus gave us one of the most remarkable stories of the radical living trough absolut senselessness: Meursault the principal character of his famous novella, L’Étranger, translated — I am no totally convinced it’s an appropriate rendering of the French word- as The Outsider, described as an homme du midi, kills another person on the beach, under the spell of the blazing sun, which plays an enigmatic but jet fundamental although mysterious role on the assassination of another individual. Camus rejected – as did so many others – the labelling of existentialism however the presence of the absurd on the telling of the story, engulfs the book. The outsider is also a stranger, in German the word entfremdung has been extensively employed by philosophers, even more, social scientists and novelists as well. The root of the word entfremdung is fremden, it carries the sense of distance also, that gives the word, stranger and its experience, a sort of estrangement in English, which is the pregnant and original meaning of the situation that is here described. So being an outsider is also being on a situation of estrangement, distanced and detached , so similar to the condition that we seem to be enduring individually and collectively trough the current pestilence and the narratives surrounding our tragic separation from any form of meaningful living and existence.

An apocalyptic narrative not exclusively of a religious nature is taking hold on many aspects of our aesthetical, cultural and even to some extent, political domains, even espiritual levels can’t remain untouched by this dominating trend. It might seem awkward or even funny but it is not. Alien invasions, the amount of movies and series that deal with the dooms day narrative is staggering, surprisingly high. Many examples can be chosen randomly to signal or point out to the phenomena. The world is coming to end and civilisation and even mankind will go extinct or so drastically transformed that a new era will inevitably emerge from the destruction of everything we cherish and value as the core of our meaning. Even the self inflicted natural disasters will escalate to the extreme threatening the way we leave and more, menacing our livelihood and organised way of life. Wars of planetary scale and the threat by massive weapons of destruction — which by the way are still there, looming — thus being chemical, biological or some evil secret or unknown nature. The nuclear apocalypse seems to be taking a second row to other more catastrophic threats. Options are available and spread from the mere fantastical to the crude reality of climate change, the old principle, set up by the Enlightenment view of the world, “Man can and most control nature, dominate nature”, is questioned from all fields of knowledge. The Age of Enlightenment has ended. Not history, that is a very weak notion, humanity cannot have a meaning without history. Some postmodern conceptions calling for the “end of history” are simply wrong. Returning to the idea of the “end of times”, not necessarily grounded on religious beliefs or prophetical visions, however one most clearly state that they play a major role on many of the decision makers, politicians and others, that openly preached to those ideas, examples can come from many fields, it is a very powerful political tool, used and employed to influence the minds of many individuals that share such reliance or credence. The fear of punishment comes from within the origins of history itself. Guilt and punishment have walked together causing great pain and suffering amongst human beings. Somehow and probably due to the current dramatic situation, enduring trough this hazardous period of mankind will cost us a very big toll and a price that already is escalating in horrendous manners, lives are lost everyday to this battle and hope is elusive and scarce. An Age of Doom is sitting and establishing a tight grip on our most venerable expressions, from the arts to pop culture, sports, all ambits of human life are being treated and castigated by this not so invisible enemy and worst, the response given by those who should lead, leaves us lagging and captured by the idea or even, inevitability of total annihilation. We are watching with dismay and disbelief that another war in Europe might arouse during the times of the current great pestilence. We are being thrown into the abyss of absurdity. The unthinkable becomes plausible and at moments, almost inevitable.

Dali’s painting of the Ghost of Vermeer is not the only attempt to capture Vermeer’s mystery. Dali went to various exercises on re-creating another of Vermeer’s marvellous works, The Lacemaker, apparently it was asked to Dali to paint this special portrait to use a term rather loosely, that might described the painting, there are several of them, the one that is housed on Dali’s Foundation and another in New York, they are called interpretations. Authentic masterpieces and not to forget there’s one copy allegedly in the possession of a private collector. But the one reproduced here, housed at the Dali Museum in Saint Petersburg, in Florida tells another tale about surrealism and the dedication of a lifetime with one of the most intriguing painters of all times. Those who have had the opportunity to watch the Girl with the Earrings at The Mauritshuus in The Hague, will speak afterwards of an wonderful experience not only for the uniqueness of such an extraordinary work of Art, but the whole setting of the Huus. No secret that dutch revere their great masters and Vermeer ranks at the top of the extraordinary list they can so proudly pride to have. The mysteries of the lapis lazuli-blue that Vermeer created for his works carries a long history to be recanted here. One last reference to the Ghost, it seems very Dali to use the wording a “phenomenological interpretation of furniture” but nonetheless this is much more than one of Dali’s humorists attempts at attracting attention over a dear subject. Maybe at large, great art can take us out of the dark tunnel of absurdity and the sensation of the nausea. Hope might come in the form of the wondrous creations of humanity that transcend the everydayness of inauthenticity and lack of meaning, if there is such an exit at all and if someone knew, ironically, about ways to elude insanity and absurdity is none other than Salvador Dali.

MARIA DEL ROSARIO MOLINA, DANTE Y EL OCTAVO CIRCULO, ENTRE LA BELLEZA Y EL MAL.

Roberto Palomo-Silva

Luogo è in inferno detto Malebolge,
tutto di pietra di color ferrigno,
come la cerchia che dintorno il volge..

Inferno, Canto XVIII. La Divina Comedia, Dante Alighieri.

La apasionante lectura de la recientemente publicada obra de Maria del Rosario Molina, El señor de Malebolge y otros cuentos, Editorial C&M, Guatemala, Agosto del 2021; nos lleva por una magníficamente construida narración y más aún , por una autentica y profunda reflexión, sobre la naturaleza del mal. No es por casualidad la escogencia del titulo de la misma, el Malebolge es uno de las más tenebrosos lugares, en el octavo círculo, del infierno de Dante, quien incluso enumera – además de nombrar algunos de los personajes allí condenados – y lista detalladamente los pecados causantes, de tal condenación, desde usureros, hipócritas, fraudulentos, rufianes y seductores, entre otros se encuentran sumergidos en el bolge, una especie de foso concéntrico, donde yacen figuras históricamente reconocidas y otros meramente anónimos, sufriendo el interminable castigo de una eternidad de sufrimientos inenarrables.

La obra conserva una unidad estilística y temática, interna y formal. Narrada en un lenguaje simplemente extraordinario, Maria del Rosario nos muestra no sólo su dominio del lenguaje, sino su capacidad notable, de crear imágenes, de navegar el curso de las variaciones y giros no solamente poéticos, sino de profundidad conceptual. El cuento principal, “El señor de Malebolge”, el cual da nombre al libro, es el primero de una serie de siete cuentos, pueden leerse separados o como un conjunto, porque están internamente vinculados, son parte de la unidad narrativa del texto. “El segundo circulo”; “La tía Refugio”; “Micifuz”; “El secuestro”; “Química” y finalmente, “La Jacinta”, son los siete cuentos que lo conforman. Un viaje de un enorme placer lingüístico y de una lectura fluida y de una enorme elegancia, amarrados por el común denominador o mejor dicho, el hilo conductor de la visión del Infierno de Dante y complementado con un recurso narrativo muy particular, una combinación de surrealismo semi-macondiano y una literatura fantástica de terror. La oscilación, entre luces y obscuridad, que emerge desde la concepción y estructura del mismo, nos depara una arquitectura narrativa sumamente atrayente y casi intoxicante, que pareciera ser como una versión literaria de una sinfonía fantástica a la Berlioz, impregnada de magia y fantasía.

No vamos a reconstruir ni analizar cada uno de los cuentos, todos vinculados, como decimos arriba, por el hilo conductor, de Ariadna tal vez, buscando la luz y así lograr salir del laberinto o de los laberintos, en los que habitamos, deambulamos perdidos y ausentes, intentando encontrar sentido y significado a lo que hacemos o soñamos. Tal vez, un tanto desvinculado de los otros cuentos, el relato de Jacinta, tenga un valor particular, sobre todo después del intenso debate, que la celebración o rememoración o tal vez, sencillamente recordación, del Bicentenario desencadenó – ahora pareciera menguar, en su intensidad al menos, por ahora – y curiosamente, sirvió para ubicar ideológicamente a la Guatemala dividida, en su grupos, facciones y hasta trincheras, confrontadas, en una visión de lo que debió ser y nunca fue y lo que la realidad histórica – está muy maltratada la mayor parte de las veces, en estos debates sumamente curiosos y algunas posiciones francamente, insostenibles, al menos en los niveles históricos y teoréticos -, deparó y desencadenó a esa Guatemala emergente o naciente después de la destrucción, del mejor de los sueños y proyectos centroamericanos, una Confederación, que se debió mantener y no destruir, en nombre de unos pseudo principios, más personales y de intereses de grupos, personas mezquinas y como María del Rosario nos sugiere, habitantes del octavo círculo, donde muchos hipócritas, fraudulentos, seductores y más, están condenados a un eterno castigo y sufrimientos indescriptibles.

Claro es la mejor metáfora de los cuentos, es el encuentro de Isabella, con el señor de Malebolge, en un castillo casi en ruinas, lúgubre, siniestro y obscuro, donde es convocada, invitada casi se diría, después de cumplir un encargo, cargado de maledicencias y profundas maldades. Hurto de reliquias sagradas, sustracción de obras de arte valiosísimas y consagradas, para servicios religiosos o sea, funciones y tareas de un muy alto orden y significado. Traficar con crucifijos, pinturas o esculturas, destinadas a los altares, de observancia y de usos populares abiertos, para las asambleas o comunidades, delitos comunes, en el sentido de expandidos y frecuentes, como los de las extracciones y subastas de antiguas piezas de las grandes civilizaciones, que existieron y de alguna manera aun lo hacen, en Mesoamérica, con el fin de subastarlas, privada o públicamente, ser adquiridas, por coleccionistas privados y retenerlas, para placeres individuales, como pasa con tantas obras de arte, son perseguidos afortunadamente, con vigor y consciencia, por todos aquellos que defienden estos patrimonios, no de alguna persona o familia, sino de naciones, las cuales son al fin de cuentas, las ultrajadas y vejadas, por delincuentes y una usura desmedida, egoísta y diabólica. El señor de Malebolge recibe y castiga a Isabella y la envía a ese octavo círculo, del que Maria del Rosario nos relata a lo largo de su magnifica obra, donde de la mano de Dante – como un nuevo Virgilio – nos ubica, en una profunda reflexión del mal y su profunda obscuridad. Valiosa, muy valiosa obra, que nos narra y reflexiona, sobre ese terrible misterio, del mal, que pareciera habitar, por todas partes y del cual son testigos, ese curioso gato y un cuestión muy particular presentada casi como un inquietante cuestionamiento, existirá una genética del mal, porque parecieran existir familias enteras unidas y vinculadas, por ese espíritu de iniquidad, dónde las herencias se convierten en armas de destrucción y aniquilamiento, de sucesores y herederos, se podría decir, estamos ante el mal manifestando su poder destructor. A veces la reflexión, sobre los orígenes de ciertas fortunas, viene a cuenta, en estos tiempos de extraordinarias penurias. Si en el mal se pudiera encontrar los orígenes de la corrupción, probablemente Dante nos dejó un inventario y un camino, para reflexionar, con la mayor seriedad posible, sobre un fenómeno totalmente global, presente, en todas partes del mundo, ante el cual la incansable lucha librada, desde muchas esquinas del planeta, nos exigen un mayor compromiso y convicción, para su erradicación y castigo. Merece la presente obra de Maria del Rosario Molina una reflexión y análisis así como una lectura serena y dedicada.

An Old Path to the Deus Absconditus: the search for the hidden divinity II.

Roberto Palomo-Silva

The Hand of God of Sant Climent de Taüll, Anon, 1123. Mà de Déu de Sant Climent de Taüll, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya, Barcelona.

As we close the current year, the Second Year of the Pandemic, elusive hope lingers tentatively from some corners of the vast world, that wide and unconnected world, as the great Peruvian novelist, Ciro Alegría, once called it in the middle of the last century. Calling upon G’d was the normal trend for previous maladies running rampantly and devouring countless human lives. There are many stories told by different sources, historical ones or sacred literature, recounting the events of plagues, droughts or great pestilence that under the darkest of times the call for divine intervention became an urgent matter. There’s one in the Talmud (Taanit, IV, 19.), which shares the tale of Honi HaMe’aggel , the Circle Drawer, who had the extraordinary gift of being listened by G’d or to use current terminology, had G’d’s ear. So in a time of a great draught asked for a divine intervention and the rains came and they poured down and the situation went from extreme draught to extreme flooding. On another chapter of Tractate Taanit, Taanis, Fast, IV, 25, the story of Rabi Akiva and the origins of the famous and extraordinary jewish prayer Avinu Malkeinu, Our Father, our King, is narrated and how it came to be whilst asking also for divine intervention during times of dire need. Somehow many of this and other stories not only kept and told on the Talmud but many other sources and different sacred texts, describe the desperate seek for answers from the absent divinity or perhaps the more accurate – if there’s any when addressing this conversations – is the dialogue with and the praying for help under the most desperate circumstances. The hidden or concealed or maybe simply absent divinity answers in ways such that the extraordinary emerges, simply happens. The rains came down. The pestilence ended. Remarkable events recorded on humanities memories, enormous tragedies overcame by an intervention so difficult to explain and taken as an answer to a sincere and very deep prayer. The unconcealment of the “hand of G’d emerging from a circle, being the circle the image of perfection”, as in the fresco from Saint Climent. The hand emerges from the sphere as if the divinity dwells on the innerness the sphere and as reply, response, to the prayer’s invocation reaches out to humanity’s desperation to bring about consolation and healing. Suffering ends. The narrative of the never ending and always continuing dialogue, conversation, between the Creator and the whole of creation, specifically with mankind, is restored, in the humbling of the prayer the answer is the healing. The Deus absconditus is unconcealed trough the mystery of the praying. There’s an inexhaustible history of this complex dialogue as none other than the search for the hidden divinity which we attempt to describe as the Deus absconditus or the old and long aspirations of man’s desperate attempts to find the source of all and the ultimate concern, after all the ancient idea that the word religion, comes from the ancient latin verb, ligare, whose meaning is to tie and in re-ligion the construct clearly signals at to join again what was split or probably thorn apart, separated, trough the never ceasing dialog or conversation someone might dare to call it nowadays. The ultimate concern becomes that experience of the bringing back that was originated on the tie and somehow became disjoined, grew apart from the essential origin. Sometimes we call the experience of the silence of G’d which refers to empty temples of pray or the abandon places of worship, where the lack of answers leads to the wondering of the seekers, the never ending sought after the responses from the silent Deus Absconditus.

Sacred texts have suffered the ordeal of translations, transliterations, rendering trough a third language and sometimes, probably the most difficult task faced and undertaken by interpreters, come across languages that aren’t spoken or written anymore. The outcome of this mischievous versions grounded on mistakes, either or purposely or naively committed but have nonetheless enormous consequences for mankind and the correct hermeneutics of ancient manuscripts or fundamental passages from different books. The story is to vast, complex to be addressed here but let us look briefly at one of this extraordinary examples, the translation of the greek word for brother as found on Mark 6:3 on the original version, αδελφός, the countless disputes around the mention that Jesus had brothers and sisters and therefore the Virgin Mary somehow also had other children, gave birth to other children, stablished an essential break amongst Christians since the times of the Reformation although the knowledge of the issue dates even to the Patristical times, there are abundant texts dealing with the matter, too many to address here, just to recall some of them, the Protoevangelium of James, circa 120 A. D., some explanations deal with the quasi argument that adelphos, plural adeplphi, also means brethren or simply is used to refer to fellow members of a certain group. More serious arguments called for the fact that greek wasn’t the lingua franca amongst jews but Aramaic and most of the evangelist communicate with each other on what might have been called Imperial Aramaic, achai – a cognate from ancient Hebrew ach which means simply brother but has a multi semantic use also meaning, kinsman or even friend, loosely – is most likely that word and it has even on nowadays Syrian-aramaic a language still spoken, a definitive and restrictive meaning of brother, however the original and employed on the greek version of the sacred texts, adelphos, comes from the alpha prefix and here is probably the crucial difficulty, deplhus means womb, so Adelphi would be those who share the womb, to make matters even more difficult. The complications can go even further, deeper and extremely sensitive to address.

Calling for kindness and humbleness is an essential manner to continue the humane dialogue with a not so evident divinity. Concealment in the form of non answering or the lack of a clear and open response generates a strange paradox or better worded as a form of perplexity. We’ve seen trough history in all the different credos, claims of being the Messiah or the reincarnation of some divinity that chooses to come back into the world either to bring an array of hope and peace – one that should last literally thousands of years – or even more, judgment and condemnation to evildoers or sinners that abandoned their brethren or simply turned their backs to the faith of their respective forefathers in which they were once raised. The reply of fire an rage has scared mankind for thousands of years, the eternal fear of condemnation and damnation even, the construction of physical places of never ending suffering and pain, the eternal fire awaiting those who leaved lives of wrongdoing and sinn, committed evil acts against their fellow humans, waged war of destruction and annihilation, deserved to be condemned to the deepest abyss of misery and suffering. The Dalai Lama, one of the world’s most respected spiritual leaders, calls for kindness and humbleness in our everyday actions and relations to the other, our fellow humans, calls for a world of respect and non violence, the building of a place where words will not be waged for the sake of domination, narcissistic fantasies of ruling and imposing will and power over populations and nations.

The idea of the repetition becomes central to praying. Kierkegaard addressed this very issue rooted in the coming to be within praying. Praying is an art in itself. Learning how to pray, the pronunciation of the words, the understanding of the deep meaning contained in the prayer uttered, not to mention its origins and specially complying and fulfilling the exact and precise timing and whole liturgical and rituals aspects of the way prayers should be said and/or singed. Prayers are forms of anticipation and replies to what is happening they address not only the past but what is further away. Prayers drawn from the past but refer to the future and that is the reason for the strictness of their utterance and the rituality accompanying the way they are said. The linkage of singing and praying is present in all forms of liturgies and even the oldest ones, where praying is signalled on other contexts, the in-depth learning of the correct way to pray and sing or the correct manner to say a prayer and pronounce each and every word either by memory or by reading, here again the notion of the repetition is present, leads the individual or the congregation, into the realm of the never ending dialog/conversation with the Divinity by simply chasing or fulfilling the obligation or commandment, mitzvah, of when and how to utter the prayer. Here is where the fundamental question of the answer to the praying comes into the centre of the meditation/act of the dialoguing with the Divinity in the form of praying to the Deus Absconditus and asking/begging to come out of concealment.

One last word on the notion/image of the Hand of God coming out of the Sphere of Perfection. Since Sloterdik’s Sheherology we have a very sound idea on how the metaphor of the circle became the Sphere of Perfection since ancient times the circle represents that which is enclosed within the absolute closure. If the Divinity thought in a manner that range from lyrical an poetical representation to sublime work of arts even coded by rules and regulation on the imagery and style in which it can be depicted, to the general and absolute rule that no imagery is aloud and even more, should and most be met with the harshest of responses or ways of punishment if the sacred rule is violated, but the sphere has no beginning nor an end, its circular shape encompasses all that is included within its realm or domain, Leibniz and the late Husserl’s view of a monological phenomenology hinted at this conception that probably all start with the sphere or that which is spherical contains perfections in itself so at the end or maybe at the beginning, it seems all to adequate that the Hand of God emerges from the concealment of its spherical own perfection, perhaps the mere dwelling in perfection itself. Probably that is the not so evident reason why Isaiah, 25:11, calls for the Hand of G’d to “…descend on this Mount….and will be spread on their Homeland.”

An Old Path to the Deus Absconditus: the search for the hidden divinity.

Roberto Palomo-Silva

Lucas Cranach, der Ältere: “Allegorie auf Gesetz und Gnäde”, circa 1529. Germanisches National Museum.

     
     
     
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The above quoted text of the Isaiah Chapter 45:15 on its “original version”, circa 485 BC, where the expression regarding the Deus Absconditus is employed, and most likely not for the very first time, in the Latin Vulgate, “…vere tu es Deus absconditus Deus Israhel salvator…” that has sadly been translated in so many different ways, however the two dominant versions generally accepted, refer to “the hidden” or “hidest thyself” in the sense of the capacity or faculty of the Divine Presence either to show or manifest Himself or not to do so and therefore to retrieve Himself into his own being. Sacred texts can be deceiving and extremely difficult to read and translations are most of the time inaccurate or the chosen words cannot reproduce the original meanings and experiences of the language as such and when it comes to certain readings or interpretations, better said certain given hermeneutics, that will eventually ground dogma or fundamental belief, failure inevitably takes place, let us not forget that wars were waged in the name of words and of course, religious beliefs and continuo to germinate never ending disputes and unsolvable controversies, some wars of today are still being fought on the grounds of religious ideas and so called, divine mandates or heavenly orders, to annihilate or even exterminate others, in the name of very obscure commands from a raging divinity that demands extinction of the others, that dare to pray to another divinity. So obscure and dark.

Martin Luther introduced, from the famous Isaiah’s quotation, regarding a G’d that is hidden or if the third person is chosen, a theological dictum, draws a distinction between a G’d that chooses not to manifest, which is very difficult to defend or to sustain, and the same G’d that reveals Himself trough his Son, Christ, Jesus and trough His manifestation or self-revelation shines in his light, using the Reformers language which in reality stems from the Greek Fathers and the combination of an old tradition, Neoplatonism, the Stoa, Plotinus and other greek thinkers that constituted an important and core tradition of early Christianity influencing greatly on the ancient Patristic thinking and nascent Tradition. Luther knew this world very well and has been known since the beginning of the Reform Movement, Luther wasn’t and expert on ancient languages, ancient Hebrew, Aramaic nonetheless bases most of his translations on the Vulgate and was helped by Erasmus and Melanchthon amongst others, that were indeed great scholars and well versed on ancient languages, however since the work was so demanding it required a long time and endless consultations to be completed. Morphosyntactically ancient or paleo Hebrew had no punctuation marks so miss-translations and errors were very common and still are, The Talmud – that extraordinary work of collective jewish wisdom – gives us a very lengthy and fruitful array of different examples of all sort of disputes, many never resolved, others illustrate the intricate hermeneutical tools employed by the Ancient Rabbis to interpret a text and come up with an answer or even established or create Rabbinical Law, regulations or norms and rules on a distinctive matter. We can find throughout the different Tractates, disputes on the correct interpretation of a word, even on its accurate and precise writing, the finding of the common root of a word that might even carry different meanings in spite off being the same one. In our present case, the key word is an Ancient Greek verb, namely, ᾔδειμεν , if we could dare to read the original meaning of the verb that speaks or names the retrieval of the Divine Presence into His Owness we are in the face of a very profound mystery – not an appropriate term to refer or designate an actual withdrawal of G’d – that tells us that sometimes for unknown causes the Divine Presence simply isn’t anymore present in the world.

According to the Book of Names (Exodus) the Divine Presence dwelt with the Israelites on its way to the Promise Land (Erestz Israel) and latter on when the Temple was finally constructed, the Divine Presence had an especial place of dwelling in the Temple, Holly of Holiest is the name given were the High Priest came into the presence of the dwelling G’d, like in the times of the dessert and the original Tabernacle after he revealed or manifested His Presence to Mosses in Sinai and in the Cloud. When the Temple was destroyed the mystery of the absence or retrieval of the Divine Presence raises the question of the Deus Absconditus. Sometimes the Gods abandon their places of worship or they choose to leave the world when humanity walks a path of self destruction or distances from their Gods. Temples remain empty. Nowadays we can see many empty Churches, Temples, places of worship and after the times of the Death of God were proclaimed – is curious once again how an expression can be so poorly interpreted: Nietzsche’s real meaning of the Death of God is completely the opposite to what has been attributed to his thinking, anew the wrong readings and misinterpretation of a word or in the Nietzsche’s case a phrase – the search for their return or the path to look after the hidden place where the Divine Presence decides to withdraw. During medieval times, Meister Eckart used a wonderful description when referring to the being of the Divinity: “the being that is and dwells on his own light” and probably here we find the source – on a pre-methaphorical language – of the absence of light and the intruding presence of the darkness, when the Gods or the Light of the Divine Presence ceases to be present in the World, stops dwelling in the world, then the darkness takes over and pain and suffering prevail. The absence of light is the presence of suffering. From the Deus Absconditus to the Deus Incognito we travel into different paths. From the so-called Self-Concealing G’d to the Self-Unconcealing G’d to the Unknown divinity that chooses to retrieve into his own absence two opposite conceptions emerge and this is crucial because it deals with the all to well established tradition that the Divinity – however the thinking or representation we choose to follow – is a living G’d that dwells with Humanity in this world. Somehow. The ancient Israelites walked the dessert and trough the dessert accompanied by the Divine Presence, either protecting them and even more, forgiving them for their wrong actions – trying to avoid the language of guilt, transgression or even sins, deliberately – and same can be affirmed from Christianity regardless of their own divisions, trough Jesus comes salvation and the rituality and liturgical elements both explicitly called for the presence of the living Christ celebrated in the eucaristhy no matter what pattern you follow: the blood of the Christ redeems and saves and is present permanently in the people or assembly, and specially in the hearts of the persons-believers, singling out an special and unique direct relation to the living G’d, once again regardless of the liturgical conception that were to be accepted or one chooses to celebrate. To some this is nothing other that revelation, the Deus Absconditus chooses to reveal himself to his people and the sinners to save them from darkness and fall, no matter the preference you are into, either by birth or by a personal election, the revelation of the divinity is the centre and core of the unconcealment by which the bond is grounded: the living G’d now addresses the world and the assembly, people, community and the individual can recognise his presence and reply to his voice or his call and like the great catholic theologian, Karl Rahner, used to say, the hearer of the word emerges.

The idea of describing G’d with human qualities or constructing a vision of the divinity to which we will ascribe all the attributes that humanity can possess or even more, achieve. During medieval times, more specifically during the period when scholasticism dominated not only philosophical and theological thinking, grounded on aristotelian metaphysics, the idea of a Supreme Being that is necessarily Good, Beautiful and Truth, can be exclusively predicated of G’d, however this Supreme Being cannot remain hidden in its eternal perfection – even whilst employing this type of language still remains within the limits of human attributes – because an isolated in Himself Perfect Being who maintains a distance from his own creation, generates a serious difficulty addressing the special bond originally established with the product of his enormous task as a Life-Giver. Creation is essentially a given act and what is given as the most perfect gift of all, none other than the gift of life and although Man is also given the ultimate gift is also the receiver of the ultimate grant, the mystery of freedom. Freedom to choose. Libero arbitrio, otherwise human life and his relation to the Divinity is completely senseless even more, human life as such becomes totally absurd if the possibility to choose is taken away form life. Almost all aspects of what some call “human action” are deeply rooted in freedom, man’s central engine and all his most important faculties and creative impulses come and stem from this extraordinary capacity to choose, human creation surges from the unconditional exercise of freedom. Enslaved human beings are dehumanised and their nature is sinked into the darkness and the abyss of the lacking, or the incompleteness that negates the essential drives of humanity and more specifically, separates mankind of his true being, mission and even destiny to use a more metaphorical language and this inevitably leads us to the other crucial problem, that of evil.

The ever-present problem of evil and the terrible injustice reigning worldwide, the atrocities committed constantly against other human beings and even more, against our own natural habitat, our dwelling-in-the-world being, have become more than dramatic. Words won’t supply answers to what we witness regularly and has turned into some sort of new everydayness. Never ending wars fought for the obscurest of reason or causes, madness spreads and dominates on all corners of the world. Darkness seems to be winning the sacred war against the children of the light. Hope recluses and retrieves from the aspirations of our daly activities – and now sinks even deeper while humanity struggles to comprehend and combat the current malady that has brought the world at large, into an abyss of fear and discontent: the fear of eminent death-, we find extenuating to pursue dreams and maintain minimum stability, if those words still have a certain given meaning. A powerful chaos rules and the old sense and sensibility balance withers away into a greater degree of inaccessibility, meaningless pervades the calmness of what once was hopeful and ascertainable. The famous painting by Cranach and the reference and use Luther introduced into art as a means to communicate and convey the message of salvation for humanity, emerging from the cross worlds of the reform movement and latter on the so called contra-reform, established the widespread view of the crucial question individuals face when it comes to understanding and more importantly, living accordingly not only a certain ethos, but a Kerygma that leads directly to the ultimate and most radical of all questions: can I be saved by my own deeds or only the chosen ones are saved by the almighty. This fundamental and core question which lies at the mere core of our sense of meaning and sense, individual lives will have a meaning from a certain commitment to govern everyday actions by abiding by rules, given to mankind, or, on the other alternative, little can be done if we’ll be granted the grace of being saved as a gift, done into humanity by the ruling and decision taken by the Almighty Deus absconditus. Kierkegaard and some other lutheran and protestant theologians, display an incredible attractive conception that was on those days, named the “Scandal”. Kierkegaard specifically signals to the scandalous nature of the “being called to be saved”, come to me, means nothing other than a calling. I shall save you if you answer my call. Come to me because you are invited and here lies the notion of the “scandal”: not only all humanity is invited into salvation and joy but not everybody listens nor replies to the call. How such a profound deafness can be so widely spread and the lack of response points perhaps to the mystery of evil. Silence turns not into this modern notion of going inside our own being and penetrate our most profound sense of truthiness but on the contrary, the lack of answer or proper replies even furthers the nature of the “scandal”. A powerful and deafening silence dominates a very loud and transformed world where madness and the lost of deepness and ability to hear that which is the fundamental calling. This and none other is the experience of the retrieving gods and the empty temples, churches and places of worship. Whilst some considered denying individuals their write to pray publicly – even to children – as a form of respect to otherness and difference in the name of openness and tolerance, waging the weaponising idea that as a respect to the different all forms of praying in public spaces, might hurt all that don’t share the same beliefs and faiths, namely preferences. Total deafness reigns. The allegory and the need to display the contents of a given disputation serves the crucial purpose of the setting up of a very important controversy. The Deus absconditus, the grace and law, the salvation as such, the dwelling divine presence and the fight to stop the gods from fleeing this horrendous conditions that are creeping up incessantly all over the world, calls for a renovation of the old kiergegaardian notion of the scandal. The ancient Israelites quarrel and established a conversation – to recur to a modern expression or the so called metaphorical speech – that keeps itself alive and on going. Praying publicly in the Kottel carries the powerful meaning of the ever present mandates and fullfilment of Torah Law. We pray in the Kottel because we choose to continuo this never ending conversation with the Divine Presence that once dwelt in the Temple. Wars, destruction, persecutions, condemnations, denials and even, state sponsored policies, the Nazis and others even, to annihilate that very strong sense of commitment, failed and were unsuccessful, still nowadays people travel from all corners of the world to seek for that invisible Holiest of Hollies were they say a dwelling G’d once spoke directly to his people and now speaks to all humanity. None other than the oldest “scandal”. We most listen and hear and more importantly, reply and answer.

EL CASO DE BELICE Y LOS DOS SISTEMAS JURIDICOS.

Roberto Palomo-Silva

En las ultimas semanas, en Guatemala, la controversia por el tema, del Diferendo Histórico – en previos posts, lo he llamado de esta forma y reitero ese uso nuevamente – está adquiriendo característica, de una controversia, incluso es palpable, como una de las leyes, de la Teoría de las Controversias (Dascal), “las controversias crecen y se profundizan”, ésta va tomando forma e intensidad o sea se “profundiza”, ha pasado de ser una forma de debate y discusión, entre columnistas de medios impresos y digitales, a las redes sociales, adquiriendo los elementos típicos y propios, de las discusiones en redes sociales, a saber, intensidad, desorden, altos niveles de emocionalidad, desinformación, confusión deliberada, insultos, ataques maliciosos y otros aspectos ampliamente conocidos, cuando este tipo de polémica es introducida a estos niveles, donde filtros y moderación, son poco exitosos y más aún, es un dominio en el cual la exageración y la confusión imperan. No veo cómo eso se podría evitar, dadas las implicaciones de la disputa, la cual abarca cerca o más de 150 años y si tomamos en cuenta, el periodo histórico, es decir el momento de los Tratados Anglo-Españoles, que es realmente, donde la controversia se origina, tanto formal como substancialmente, pues realmente, desde la Época Colonial, hasta nuestros días, ha estado presente, de una forma u otra y bajo distintas variantes.

De la búsqueda por Títulos Históricos, por parte del Reino Unido y su intensa procura de uno, sobre el Territorio Disputado, recuérdese sencillamente las infructuosas procuras e intentos secretos, tanto de Georges de Villiers, Duke of Buckingahm e incluso Lord Clarendon, también Villiers, por obtener un Titulo por parte del Reino de España, existe documentación, sobre dichas reuniones y altos dignatarios de la Corona Española. No es prudente dado el litigio existente extenderme demasiado sobre esta materia, baste aludir brevemente, que desde estos momentos, las concesiones para explotar madera, hasta la Independencia de las Provincias Unidas de Centro América, con la Confederación, como estado sucesor y emergente, de la Capitanía General del Reino de Guatemala, del proceso de Independencia, los territorios tal y como eran y estaban establecidos, pasaron a ser parte territorial integrante de la Confederación, acá incluso emergería la invocación a una de las mas conocidas formas y contribuciones del pensamiento jurídico luso-latinoamericano al Derecho Internacional General, me refiero a la doctrina del uti possidetis iuris, la cual se encuentra contenida, en el Derecho Romano, su desarrollo y ampliación, es una de tantas contribuciones al Derecho Internacional General, Público y Privado, que América Latina ha configurado. Como sostenía arriba, no voy a revelar detalles, que podrían afectar el Caso y además, mi rol y participación, en el mismo es completamente inexistente, al terminar la negociación del Acuerdo Especial, me traslade a Países Bajos, donde después de cuatro años como Embajador y seguir acuciosa y detenidamente los procesos incoados, ante la Corte, a lo cual dediqué la mayor parte de mi trabajo diplomático y profesional; a lo largo del proceso de la Consulta Popular, participé en algunas discusiones, sobre la naturaleza del Acuerdo y los caminos venideros, en mi condición de Embajador en Situación de Disponibilidad, hasta la fecha, hice algunas contribuciones adicionales, estudios y propuestas, para enriquecer las posibilidades de llegar a establecer los grandes pilares de la Primera Memoria e incluso a un ex Canciller de la República, le entregué un extenso estudio, sobre la eventual Arquitectura del Caso, con una propuesta de configuración, de la Memoria o si se prefiere, de los grandes temas y principios, que ésta debería de contener, en uno de mis viajes a Guatemala me reuní con la extinta Comisión de Belice, COMBEL, unos días antes que fuera suprimida o cerrada, decisión la cual siempre cuestioné abiertamente. No es pues mi papel referirme in extenso al tema o a los detalles de la elaboración de la misma, entiendo existe un excelente equipo internacional de abogados, de un enorme prestigio y sumamente calificados, conocedores de todas las ramas del Derecho Internacional General Consensuado, podrán y deberán elaborar un documento y anexos, con la mayor corrección y propiedad, de lo cual no me cabe la menor duda. En el tema de los equipos nacionales, prefiero guardar el más respetuoso y prudente silencio, puesto tampoco se quiénes son sus miembros, salvo uno o dos nombres, de personalidades, que respeto mucho.

Una de las mayores dificultades, que el Diferendo Histórico enfrentará al someterlo a la Jurisdicción de la Corte, como es ya el caso, es la naturaleza y conformación de la Corte y sus grandes tradiciones. Aunque es una verdad totalmente reconocida, se trata de una Corte de un altísimo y ejemplar nivel, sus fallos y resoluciones, han sido y son aportes de un valor inmenso, al desarrollo del Derecho Internacional, en todas sus formas y variantes. Sin embargo y quizás esto se hace más evidente, al recordar la exclusividad de las lenguas francesa e inglesa, como únicos idiomas de litigio o sometimiento de los Casos, es verdad que se pueden hacer excepciones, presentar sea alegatos, documentos escritos y durante la fase oral, argüir en el idioma original, de la parte ponente o presentante, no obstante, tal procedimiento, demanda con claridad la entrega a la Corte, al Registro, de las correspondientes traducciones y ese es un enorme reto, todo lo anterior esta normado en el Capitulo III, Procedimiento, articulo 39 del Estatuto de la Corte. Hay un grave problema de fondo, además que la Corte dictará sus resoluciones y sentencias, solamente en Francés o Inglés, algo más sutil y complejo subyace, en esta practica establecida y consolidada. Los dos grandes sistemas jurídicos dominantes, son el Francés y los sistemas codificados y el Common Law o sea el sistema de los países anglo hablantes. Si bien es cierto, que los sistemas jurídicos latinoamericanos, son evidentemente más cercanos al Derecho Romano y de allí a la tradición francófona, claramente inspirada en el Derecho Civil y la tradición napoleónica, la realidad es que la evolución de los sistemas jurídicos latinoamericanos hace que hoy en día ya no sean tan cercanos al Derecho napoleónico o de los sistemas francófonos. La evolución extraordinaria del Derecho Constitucional está cambiando aceleradamente las visiones jurídicas y sus practicas a lo largo y lo ancho del Continente. Es este pues el dilema, vamos a someter la disputa o dos sistemas jurídicos, que no son practicados en Guatemala y cuyo conocimiento de los mismos, es limitado y reservado a ciertos especialistas, que los hay en Guatemala. Recuerdo con una gran claridad ciertas discusiones, que se dieron durante la negociación del Acuerdo Especial, fueron muchas y sumamente enriquecedoras y no solamente me refiero acá a los procedimientos alternativos que se plantearon, ex aequo et bono, que tenia sus adherentes, siguiendo los trabajos de dos grandes internacionalistas guatemaltecos, Carlos García Bauer y Luis Aycinena Salazar, proponentes de esta alternativa y aun más quienes buscaron, la alternativa del Arbitraje o el sometimiento de la disputa ante Cámara Especial, nunca hubo consenso sobre ellas y primó el sometimiento ante la Corte en Pleno, francamente la alternativa de Cámara Especial y que 5 Jueces resolvieran el Diferendo era sumamente difícil de aceptar, el tema del ex aequo et bono siempre me dejó intrigado, aunque hubo quienes claramente y sin dubitaciones, decían debe ser un Juicio de Derecho, el procedimiento ex aequo et bono – usado en casos de arbitrajes – jamás ha sido empleado o aplicado por la Corte, era como una experimentación y una primera prueba, aunque tenia y tiene sus muy solidos méritos, resultaría políticamente inviable. Allí surgía esa profunda inquietud y preocupación, vamos a buscar resolver el Diferendo Histórico, un asunto, que pasa por el corazón mismo de la historia de Guatemala, a través de sistemas jurídicos, que nos son ajenos. Cuyos lenguajes no coinciden, sus practicas son diferentes y aunque los principios sean los mismos y las fuentes coincidan, las distancias son claras y evidentes. Esa línea de argumentación siempre me cuestionó profundamente y nunca encontré una respuesta satisfactoria. El problema está en la naturaleza misma de la Corte, la exclusión de ciertos idiomas – y el Español es un idioma oficial de Naciones Unidas, lo cual engendra una paradoja muy seria – es mas que la imposibilidad de hablar nuestro propio idioma como herramienta de comunicación y argumentación, tanto oral como escrita, es la exclusión de una enorme cultura y de una de las zonas o regiones, en tanto que un gran conjunto, es una de las que más han contribuido al surgimiento de muchas formas del derecho, entre ellas el ius gentium, que amarra toda la gran tradición luso- hispánica, desde la Península al Continente. Y los nombres son muchísimos. Muchísimos y de un enorme valor. Desde Vitoria hasta Eduardo Jiménez de Aréchaga, Bernardo Sepulveda, Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade, actual Juez de la Corte y tantos mas, que resulta imposible citar y recordar acá, en este breve espacio. Y dicho sea de paso, Guatemala tuvo y tiene una muy importante tradición, en esta materia también.
Como fácilmente se notará y podrá apreciarse, estamos y estuvimos, ante una muy difícil decisión. Y esos temores y sombras flotan, en las visiones jurídicas, de importantes guatemaltecos, que silenciosamente siguen el proceso y se cuestionan, con discreción, muchísimas cosas y la prudencia y discreción, no el temor o la presión, hacen que muchos de nosotros hablemos poco y callemos mas, para evitar perjudicar el Caso, posición común y compartida, con mi querido amigo, Héctor Rolando Palomo González, – notable jurista guatemalteco y profundo conocedor del Caso y uno de los verdaderos expertos maritimistas – apasionados desde siempre del Diferendo y el cual seguimos religiosamente, tratando de evitar, en todo momento, perjudicar el caso, al hablar sin la propiedad necesaria. Sin embargo, se trata de la Historia misma de Guatemala y eso no lo debemos perder de vista.

Uno de los más graves obstáculos, que enfrenta la Diplomacia, en general, fenómeno global y no particular nuestro, aunque entre nosotros es muy acentuado, es el de la sobrevaloración e imposición, de los Sistemas de Administración, sobre la Diplomacia y sus prácticas. Ni siquiera la Academia se escapa de estas formas de control y supervisión. Los modelos y métodos corporativos están por todas partes. Los diplomáticos se ven literalmente condicionados, por no usar y recurrir a expresiones o adjetivos contundentes, por las administraciones. Y el Caso y su administración y manejo no es una excepción, aunque algunos busquen excluirlo y asilarlo de tales realidades. No es ningún secreto, que las Cancillerías son grandes cementerios de papeles, informes, cartas y una serie de comunicaciones, que se proliferan desmedidamente, sobre todo en la Era Digital y de las comunicaciones inmediatas y de las respuestas inmediatas también. Ese falso sentido de urgencia es un precipitador de errores. Lo inmediato y lo urgente se mezclan y confunden. Los administradores de papeles demandan constantemente un mayor número de documentación, nunca termina y no tiene final. Y en medio de esos laberintos – no es solamente uno, son varios y se entrelazan – la búsqueda es interminable. La exigencia es incontenible. El llamado “empapelamiento” es un plan sistemático de generación de olvidos, extravíos y excesos. Y, sin embargo, no es posible navegar estos mares agitados, sin medios coadyuvantes al simple surcarlos. Incluso, asuntos como confidencialidad y reserva, son y serán causantes de una preocupación constante, en una época, que demanda trasparencia y apertura, las actuaciones, deben ser públicas y de conocimiento de cualquier persona. Los modelos de la secretividad, especialmente en América Latina, tienen tonos y evocan, antiguos autoritarismos y formas dictatoriales, ante las cuales han habido innumerables luchas y rebeliones, nuestros sistemas republicanos demandan esas transparencias y aperturas, esfuerzos por ocultar o condicionar, accesos a cuestiones, que afectan a la totalidad o al dominio de la Nación, chocarán con reacciones contrarias, que buscarán y lucharán, por detenerlas y limitarlas. Intentar acogerse a formulas y remanentes, de los autoritarismo y formas de controles, por vías siniestras, hablará de unos tiempos y un pasado, nada deseado y cuyas consecuencias han sido claramente improductivas e, incluso, innecesarias. La lucha por obtener información clara y transparente, en asuntos de esta relevancia, donde la historia misma de Guatemala se ve encontrada, carecen de sentido y no son consecuentes, con los actuales esfuerzos, por consolidar las democracias republicanas e incluso los Estados de Derecho. Guatemala eligió enfrentar a una potencia colonial, con las armas del Derecho Internacional y la verdad histórica, mal sería que esa hermosa gesta, no sea también algo, que internamente se ha librado, bajo ese espíritu y valores, que nuestro constitucionalismo ha ido lenta y pausadamente, incorporando a las esferas tanto públicas como privadas.